Play and Child Directed Speech

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Theorist: Lev Vygotsky
early child development researcher who observed children’s play linked to both cognitive and social development. He noted that young children often use props as ‘pivots’ to support their play, but that older children use their imagination.
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He also observed that children role – play adult behaviours as part of exploring their environment.
This has interested more recent researchers such as……
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Theorist: Catherine Garvey
studied pairs of children playing and found that children adopt roles and identities acting out storylines and inventing objects and settings as required in role play.
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Scenarios ....
this termed pretend play and fulfils Halliday’s Imaginative language function.
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Why do children play?
1. Because it is enjoyable.
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Why do children play?
2. Practices social interactions and negotiation skills, with roles and responsibilities being divided as children play. This is called Socialdramatic play and involves both social and dramatic skills, with explicit rules, reflecting real world behav
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Socialdramatic Play
Begins at around 4 years old. In their re – enactments they use field – specific lexis and structure them. In very similar ways that adults structure their conversations. Imitation is therefore used Theorist: Skinner – linked to imaginative function
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What roles do parents play in development of child’s language?
Theorist: Skinner – imitation through parents
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Child Directed Speech
The academic term for the language used by adults/caregivers when addressing children. Known by non – linguistics. Previously known as ‘motherese’ or ‘parentese’
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Examples:
Beddy Byes. Jim Jams. Din Dins. Ickle. Yum Yum. Doggie. Wee Wee
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CDS through many different features: PHONOLOGY
Separate phrases more distinctly (longer pauses), Speak more - S – l – o – w – l – y, Exaggerated ‘singsong’ intonation (level of voice going up and down), Exaggerated difference between questions, statements, commands.Higher and wider range of pitc
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Lexis and Semantics
Use concrete nouns e.g. train, eat, Fewer verbs/ modifiers, Adopt child’s own words for things e.g. wickle rabbit…. Diminutive forms e.g. doggie
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Frequent use of child’s name and absence of pronouns e.g. Smile for mummy
instead of smile for me
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Pragmatics
Lots of gesture and body language, Exaggerated of turn talking allowing children to make responses longer pauses, Supportive language… Stopping frequently for child to respond - turn taking
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Grammatical
Repeated sentence frames ‘that’s a’ – to name something he would have to say this, One word utterances and/ or short, elliptical sentences, More simple constructions, Fewer complex sentences and passives.
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More Grammatical
Omission of past tense and inflections use of present tense instead, More imperatives, interrogatives and use of tag questions.
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Even More Grammatical
Use of EXPANSIONS where the parent ‘fills out’ the child utterances, e.g. child says ‘milk’ adult says ‘what do you want milk:’ Use of recasting’s where the child’s vocab is put into a new utterance
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Benefits of CDS
Turn Taking – pragmatics, Grammatical corrections, Positive/negative reinforcement, Intonations, Connect between commands etc,
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CDS aims to
Attract and hold the baby’s attention, Helps the process of breaking down the language into understandable chunks, Help children to understand the structure and function of language,
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Theorists whose research supports the use of CDS
......
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Theorist: Alison Clarke Stewart 1973
Children’s who’s mothers talk to them have a larger vocab
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Theorist: Nelson 1973
children’s who’s mother’s corrected them on one word choice and punctuations actually advanced more slowly than those with mothers who were generally accepting
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Theorist: Kuhl 1992
studied exaggerated vowel sounds by parents when speaking to 6 months old (in English, Swedish and Russian) babies turn towards adults who speaker in sing – song voice, ignoring regular conversation.
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Theorist: Clark and Clark’s 1977
research suggests that children who are only exposed to adult speech do not acquire the same standard of language at those who parents speak to them in a modified manner.
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Theorist: Jerome Bruner
Peek – A – Boo – says there must be a language acquisition support system (LASS) He looked at activities such as bedtime and mealtimes and how carers made the rule of these interactions explicit and predictable so hat children could learn.
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Research which does not support the use of CDS
Recent research argues that CDs doesn’t directly help babies learn language instead it helps parents communicate with children.
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In Samoo and Papua New Guinea children aren’t spoken to until they have reached a certain age...
In some other cultures adult language is not simplified for children. These children still go through some development stages at roughly the same time as long as there is EXPOSURE to language Theorist: Chomsky.
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Theorist: Noam Chomsky
Maintained that language structures cannot simply be acquired by repeating language from structures such as CDs because of its impoverished and ‘random’ nature (using incomplete grammatical utterances)
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Chomsky’s opinion seems less valid now as structures of CDs suggests it is more structured.
He did not believe in CDs.
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Theorist: Vygotsky
has been influential in the area of research that looks at the role of parents in linguistic support. ‘The zone’ (proximal development).
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He said that there is a..
moment in a child’s progress where they should be supported by an adult to help achieve independence, knowledge and competence.
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Theorist: Bruner
introduced idea of ‘scaffolding’ as a metaphor for the way in which adults helps children advance to cognivity.
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He also observed that children role – play adult behaviours as part of exploring their environment.

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This has interested more recent researchers such as……

Card 3

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Theorist: Catherine Garvey

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Card 4

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Scenarios ....

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Card 5

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Why do children play?

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