Plasma membranes (structure and function)

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What does it mean by the term "compartmentalisation"?
The formation of separate membrane-bound areas in a cell
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Why is it necessary that there are separate membrane-bound areas within a cell?
Different chemical reactions are going on all over the cell, different membrane-bound areas allow specific conditions for these reactions and protects vital cell components
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What is the plasma membrane?
The cell surface membrane which separates the cell from its external environment
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What is the cell membrane theory called?
The fluid mosaic model
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What 2 types of membrane proteins are there?
Intrinsic and extrinsic
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What is the phospholipid bilayer?
2 layers of phospho0lipids with the hydrophobic tails sandwiched in the middle and the hydrophilic heads on the outside, meaning it can exist in aqueous environments
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What is an intrinsic protein? (Structure)
A protein embedded within both layers of the phospholipid bilayer
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Channel proteins
Hydrophilic channel, passive movement of polar molecules and ions down a conc grad, they are held in position by the hydrophobic R-groups interacting with the hydrophobic tails
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Carrier proteins
Plays a role in both passive and active transport, with active transport involving the protein changing shape
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Glycoproteins
Intrinsic protein with a carbohydrate attached to it, helps with cell adhesion and receptors in cell signalling
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Glycolipids
Lipids with carbohydrates attached to it, act as cell markers (antigens) so that the cell can be recognised as sel for non-self with the immune system
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Extrinsic proteins
Proteins present on one of the membrane layers, hydrophilic R-groups interact with the heads, can move between layers
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Cholesterol
A lipid with a hydrophilic and hydrophobic end, in between phospholipids, regulates fluidity by hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions
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How does temperature effect membrane structure?
The more temperature, the more kinetic energy the membrane has and so it increases its fluidity. The increase in fluidity means it makes the membrane more permeable. As the temperature continues to go up, the membrane will break down
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Why do solvents effect the plasma membrane?
Water is essential in the formation so if molecules that are less polar or non-polar interact with the cell, they can disrupt the membrane and, in some cases, dissolve it.
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How does solvents effect the membrane?
The less polar or non polar molecules can enter the cell membrane between the phospholipids, this makes it more fluid and there for more permeable.
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Why is it necessary that there are separate membrane-bound areas within a cell?

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Different chemical reactions are going on all over the cell, different membrane-bound areas allow specific conditions for these reactions and protects vital cell components

Card 3

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What is the plasma membrane?

Back

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Card 4

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What is the cell membrane theory called?

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Card 5

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What 2 types of membrane proteins are there?

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