Plants and ECM

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What is a tissue?
a group of cells consisting of one or more cell types that together perform a specialized function
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What is an organ?
consists of several types of tissues that together carry out particular functions
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How do shoot and root systems depend on eachother?
roots rely on sugar produced by photosynthesis in the shoot system, and shoots rely on water and minerals absorbed by the root system
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What is a trichrome?
An outgrowth of the shoot epidermis that helps with insect defence
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What are meristems?
perpetually undifferentiated tissues, which generate cells for primary and secondary growth. There are two main types: apical and lateral mersitems
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What is developmental plasticity?
describes the effect of environment on development
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Define a) Growth b)Morphogenesis c)Cell differentiation (these are the three types of development)
a) an irreversible increase in size b)the development of body form and organisation c)when cells with the same genes become different from one another
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Give four reasons that aridopsis is a good model plant
Its very small, has a short generation time, 1 plant can produce over 5000 seeds and its genome is particularly well suited for analysis (very small- only 5 chromosomes with 27000 genes altogether) and easily genetically engineered via bacteria
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What is the difference between cell division and cell expansion?
Cell division increases the number + potential for growth whilst cell expansion accounts for the actual increase in size
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Why do so many types of connective tissue exist? (due to variation in which four things?)
1. the relative proportion of fibres to cells within the ECM 2. the number and proportion of different cell types within the ECM 3. the proportion and arrangement of the fibres in the ECM 4. the composition of the non-fibrous component of the ECM
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What is a cell junction?
A specialised site on a cell at which it is attached to another cell or the extracellular matrix).
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What do cadherins do?
mediate cell-cell junctions
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What is a polyploidy organism?
Organisms that contain more than 2 paired homologous sets of chromosomes).
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What is the range of haploid number of organisms?
1 (in a worm) to 1000 in a fern
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What is the range of human chromosome size?
50 Mbp to 256Mbp in length (1.5 to 8.5 cm) totalling 3 Gbp (Giga = 109) of DNA (2 metres per cell)
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How do single celled organisms use cell signalling?
to identify and interact with cells of the correct mating type
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What do multicellular organisms depend on cell signalling for?
correct development, tissue maintenance and homeostasis
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Define: Totipotent
early zygote cells can give rise to all cell types
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Pluripotent
blastocyst cells of the inner mass can give rise to embryonic cell types
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Multipotent
bone marrow stem cells can give rise to all blood cell types
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Oligopotent
gut epithelial stem cells give rise to a few terminally differentiated cell types (including goblet cells, enterocytes)
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Unipotent
stem cells in the basal epidermis give rise to skin keratinocytes
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Card 2

Front

What is an organ?

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consists of several types of tissues that together carry out particular functions

Card 3

Front

How do shoot and root systems depend on eachother?

Back

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Card 4

Front

What is a trichrome?

Back

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Card 5

Front

What are meristems?

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