Plant Organistation

  • Created by: 07BO02
  • Created on: 17-04-18 21:22
What's the epidermal tissue?
The tissue that covers the outer surfaces of the entire plant for protection.
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What's the palisade mesophyll tissue?
The part of the leaf where most photosynthesis occurs.
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What's the spongy mesophyll tissue?
The tissue is the leaf that contains big air spaces to allow gases to diffuse in and out of the cells.
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What's the xylem tissue?
The tissue that transports water mineral ions from the roots to the leaves - it also supports the plants.
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What's the phloem tissue?
The tissue that transports dissolved food materials through the plant.
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What's the meristem tissue?
The tissue that is normally found at the tips of shoots and roots that contains the plants stem cells.
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What are 3 plant organs?
Stems, roots and leaves.
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How are the epidermis tissues in the leaf adapted for their function?
They're covered with a waxy cuticle which helps reduce water loss. The upper epidermis is transparent so that light can pass through it to the palisade layer.
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Describe the structure of a phloem tube.
The tube is made up of elongated living cells with small pores at the end walls.
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What direction does cell sap travel in the phloem?
Both directions.
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What's translocation?
The process of food substances (mainly dissolved sugars) made in the leaves being transported to the rest of the plant for immediate use or for storage.
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Describe the structure of xylem tube.
The tube is made up of dead cells joined end to end with no end walls between them and the hole down the middle. They're strengthened with a material called lignin.
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What direction do water and mineral ions in the xylem flow?
Up the xylem to the leaves.
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What's transpiration?
The process of water moving from the roots, through the xylem and out the leaves due to evaporation and diffusion of water from the plants surface.
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What causes a transpiration stream?
The evaporation of water from the leaves creates a slight shortage of water in the leaf, so more water is drawn up from the rest of the plant through the xylem to replace it. Causing more water to be drawn up from the roots.
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How does light intensity affect the rate of transpiration?
An increase in light intensity will increase the rate of transpiration because it will cause the stomata to open - stomata begin to close as it gets darker.
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How does temperature affect the rate of transpiration?
An increase in temperature will increase the rate of transpiration because more energy is transferred to the water particles to allow them to evaporate and diffuse out of the stomata quicker.
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How does air flow (wind) affect the rate of transpiration?
A better air flow around the plant (e.g. stronger wind) increases the rate of transpiration because it maintains a low concentration of water in the air outside the leaf. This allows diffusion to occur quicker - keeps steep concentration gradient.
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How does humidity affect the rate of transpiration?
An increase in humidity decreases the rate of reaction as there is a high concentration of water vapour in the air causing the concentration gradient for diffusion to be lower - causing it to be slower.
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What equipment do you use in the experiment to investigate the rate of transpiration?
A potometer, a beaker of water and the plant.
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How do you do the experiment for transpiration?
You set up the equipment and then record the starting position of the meniscus. Start a stopwatch and record the distance moved by the meniscus at regular intervals.
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What are guard cells?
They are the cell that control the size of the stomata.
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What happens to the stomata when there's lots of water?
The guard cells fill up with water and become plump and turgid. This makes the stomata open so gases can diffuse in and out of the plant.
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What happens to the stomata when there's shortage of water?
The guard cells lose water and become flaccid, causing the stomata to close. This helps stop too much water vapour escaping.
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How are guard cell adapted for their function?
They have thin outer walls and thick inner walls to make the opening and closing work. They are also sensitive to light and close at night to save water without losing out on photosynthesis.
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Why are there more stomata on the under surface of the leaf than the upper surface?
The lower surfaces are shaded and cooler as the sun doesn't shine directly on them, causing less water being lost through the stomata.
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Why do stomata close at night?
Carbon dioxide doesn't need to diffuse in for photosynthesis as temperature and light intensity have become the limiting factors.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What's the palisade mesophyll tissue?

Back

The part of the leaf where most photosynthesis occurs.

Card 3

Front

What's the spongy mesophyll tissue?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What's the xylem tissue?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What's the phloem tissue?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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