Plant cloning

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What are the advantages of asexual reproduction?
It only requires 1 plant making it a fast process as there is no need to find a mate. All offspring have the same genetic information so will be well adapted to their environment.
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What are the disadvantages of asexual reproduction?
There is a lack of genetic variation, so plants cannot adapt or evolve to change. 1 disease may wipe out the entire population.
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Give examples of natural vegetative propagation?
Tubers e.g. potatoes, root suckers/basal sprouts e.g. Elm trees, runners e.g. strawberries, bulbs e.g. daffodils.
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In what ways can disease spread?
Spread through roots, through insects or through contamination by tree surgeons.
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Describe asexual reproduction in elm trees
Happens following damage/stress to parent tree. New growth in form of root suckers from meristems near the trunk of plant within 2 months. Clonal patches - initially roots still connected to parent tree.
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What are problems concerning Elm trees?
Dutch Elm disease. Devastated populations of Elm trees in Europe.
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What was Dutch Elm disease caused by?
A fungal pathogen.
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What was Dutch Elm disease spread by?
The Elm bark beetle.
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Describe the first step of taking cuttings
Take a section of stem cut between leaf joints (nodes).
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What is the 2nd step of taking cuttings?
Cut end is dipped into rooting powder containing plant hormones e.g. auxin to encourage growth.
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3rd step of taking cuttings
Planted where it should start to develop roots and leaves.
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What is grafting?
Shoot section of a woody plant is joined to an already growing root and stem (rootstock).
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Describe the properties of grafts
Graft grows and is genetically identical to the parent but the rootstock is genetically different.
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What is the 1st step of tissue culture?
The explant leaf cells are taken from meristems in shoot tips with sterile forceps.
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2nd step of tissue culture
Plant is sterilised by dipping into bleach so no plants will be infected.
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What is the 3rd step of tissue culture?
Section of cells transferred to nutrient agar containing e.g. potassium, magnesium, glucose to assist in plant growth.
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Describe the 4th step of tissue culture
Cells are subdivided from undifferentiated callus culture and placed in agar which will stimulate shoot growth through use of hormones e.g. auxin.
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What is the 5th step of tissue culture?
Plantlets transferred to agar containing root stimulating hormones e.g. cytokinin and auxin where plantlets will differentiate.
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6th step of tissue culture
Plantlets planted into compost/soil/greenshouses in aseptic conditions to grow into larger plants with same genetic information.
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What are the advantages of micropropagation?
Quick process, produces a large amount, not reliant on environment so done anywhere, genetically identical, all at same point in growth, disease free, useful for rare/endangered species, uniformity makes marketing easier, shipped in large numbers.
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What are the disadvantages of micropropagation?
Time consuming, expensive e.g. to maintain temperature, space needed, no genetic variation, requires sterile facilities and trained staff, susceptible to disease.
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Card 2

Front

What are the disadvantages of asexual reproduction?

Back

There is a lack of genetic variation, so plants cannot adapt or evolve to change. 1 disease may wipe out the entire population.

Card 3

Front

Give examples of natural vegetative propagation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

In what ways can disease spread?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Describe asexual reproduction in elm trees

Back

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