Piliavin

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Background
Kitty Genovese
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Diffusion of responsability*
Bystander effect, the more people that are present the less likely people will react because of *
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Pluralistic ignorance
Emergencies are unusual, an individual seeks cues form other people
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Modelling effect
More likely to help if they see somebody else helping
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Aims
1. Whether the ill person would get mor help than the drunk person. 2. Would there be ethonocentric behaviour. 3. Whether a model present would change behaviour.
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Method
Field experiment
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Independent variables
1. Type of victim. (drunk/ill) 2. Race of victim. (black/white) 3. Presence of model. (manipulations of the actions) (early/late)
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Dependent variables
1. Time taken. 2. Total number of passengers who helped. 3. Gender, race and location. 4. Comments made by the passengers.
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Location
A and D trains of 8th avenue in New York. New stops about 7 and a half minutes. 103 trials between bronx and harlem
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Sample and participants
1. Opporunity sample. 2. 4450 solicited men and women. 3. Around equal race. 4. average amount of people per carriage- 43 and critical zone-8.
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Confederates
4 in a team. 2 males and 2 females. males model and victim sna femlaes were observers- attempt to create inter-rater reliability. Four groups. One black victim - didn't want to do drunk trials because of fear of harm.
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Victim conditions
Drunk victim- 38 trials, smelt of alcohol and carried brown bag. Cane victim - 65 trials, carried black canne
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Model conditions
Early model(critical). 70 seconds waited, Early model(adjacent) 70 seconds waited, Late model(critical) 150 seocnds waited, Late model(adjacent) 150 seconds waited
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Results
1. Ill victim more likely to be helped. 2. spontaneous helpers- 90% were male. 3. Some tendancy to same race helping. 4. Spontaneous comments more likely in the drunk trials. 5.
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Conclusions
Created: the arousal cost reward model. When arousal is higher: more one can empathise with victim, closer they are to an emergency, longer the emergency continues without being given. Arousal can be reduced by: Helping directly, going to get help.
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Strengths
1. High in ecological validity. 2. No demand characteristics. 3. Representative sample.
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Weaknesses
1. Lack of control over extraneous variables. 2. Ethics - deception, no informed consent, no debriefing.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Bystander effect, the more people that are present the less likely people will react because of *

Back

Diffusion of responsability*

Card 3

Front

Emergencies are unusual, an individual seeks cues form other people

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

More likely to help if they see somebody else helping

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

1. Whether the ill person would get mor help than the drunk person. 2. Would there be ethonocentric behaviour. 3. Whether a model present would change behaviour.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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