Piaget's Theory of Intellectual Development

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Sensorimotor Stage: 0-2 years
Experience world through senses. Learn through trial+error. Object permanence at 8 months. Understand that people are separate objects+basic lang.
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Pre-Operational Stage: 2-7 years
Toddler=mobile but lacks reasoning. Struggle to conserve. Egocentric/struggle to see perspective of others. Begin to understand classification but struggle to place things in more than 1 class
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Concrete Operational: 7-11 years
Can conserve, no longer egocentric, understand class inclusion, better at reasoning/operations+maths. Struggle with abstract ideas.
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Formal Operational: 11+
Formal+scientific reasoning, understand abstract ideas, focus on form of arguments rather than content
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Object Permanence
Ability to realise that objects still exist even if they are out of sight. Piaget believed this developed at 8 months, before this they lose interest in an out-of-sight object so presume it no longer exists.
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Conservation
Ability to realise quantity of an object stays same if appearance changes. E.g. amount of liquid=same if poured into different shape vessels.
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Class Inclusion
Advanced classification skill understanding that some objects are sub-sets of a larger class of objects. E.g. that dogs are animals.
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Egocentrism
Pre-operational thinking is self-centred, they cannot think about perspectives of others. Only from their point of view.
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Dubious Method Investigating Conservation
Children in Piaget's study were influenced by seeing experimenter change appearance of liquid/counters. Other study:control replicated Piaget but when 'naughty teddy' knocked counters closer 62% answered right.
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Opposing Research about Egocentrism
Hughes found that 90% of children aged 3 1/2 years old were able to position a doll where it couldn't be seen by another doll+90% of 4 year olds could do this with 3 dolls. Piaget underestimated ability to decentre.
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Domain-General and Domain-Specific Development
Piaget believed that all aspects of cognition develop together. Research with children with ASD suggest these develop separately, e.g. children with Asperger's syndrome=egocentric but develop normal reasoning and language.
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Card 2

Front

Toddler=mobile but lacks reasoning. Struggle to conserve. Egocentric/struggle to see perspective of others. Begin to understand classification but struggle to place things in more than 1 class

Back

Pre-Operational Stage: 2-7 years

Card 3

Front

Can conserve, no longer egocentric, understand class inclusion, better at reasoning/operations+maths. Struggle with abstract ideas.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Formal+scientific reasoning, understand abstract ideas, focus on form of arguments rather than content

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Ability to realise that objects still exist even if they are out of sight. Piaget believed this developed at 8 months, before this they lose interest in an out-of-sight object so presume it no longer exists.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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