Physiology of Human Cells Topic 4

  • Created by: saraht83
  • Created on: 10-11-16 20:40
Frontal Lobe
Somatic sensory, forehead region
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Temporal Lobe
Auditory, beside ears
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Parietal Lobe
Top back of head
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Occipital Lobe
Vision, bottom back of head
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Gyrus
Ridge
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Sulcus
Valley
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Meninges
Membranes of the brain
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Midbrain
Start of connection to spinal cord
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Pons
Lots of fibres connecting two halves of cerebellum
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Medulla Oblongata
Brain stem, connects to spinal cord
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Basal Ganglia
Caudate nucleus, putamen and globus pallidus
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Ventral Horn
Motor information out
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Dorsal horn
Sensory information in
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Dendrites
An important route in for information from other neurones
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Axon Hillock
Where all the information for making action potentials is arranged
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Axon
Takes the electron signal elsewhere
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Glia
Astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia and ependymal cells
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Astrocytes
Surround blood vessels and produce the blood brain barrier
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Oligodendrocytes
Form myelin sheaths in the CNS
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Microglia
Phagocytic hoovers mopping up infection
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Ependymal Cells
Line the ventricles and produce cerebrospinal fluid
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Nernst Equation
Predicts the equilibrium potential for a single ion species
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Depolarisation
Increase in membrane potential
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Repolarisation
Decrease in membrane potential immediately following an increase
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Myelination
Speeds up action potentials
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Nodes of Ranvier
Where action potentials are evoked
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Axo-dendritic Synapse
Axon synapses onto dendrite
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Axo-somatic Synapse
Axon synapses onto body of cell
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Axo-axonic Synapse
Axon synapses onto another axon
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Potassium Channels
Ion channels that are always open
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Fast EPSPs
Ionotropic receptor opens sodium channels
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Slow EPSPs
Metabotropic receptor closes potassium channels
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Fast IPSPs
Ionotropic receptor opens Cl- channels
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Slow IPSPs
Metabotropic receptor opens potassium channels
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Temporal Summation
Same synapse stimulated twice in a row
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Spatial Summation
Different synapses stimulated simultaneously
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Inhibitory Inputs
May release GABA to inhibit synapse from reaching threshold
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Neuromuscular Junction
Synapses onto skeletal muscle, transmitter is ACh
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Monosynaptic Reflex
Has a single synapse between afferent and efferent neurons
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Polysynaptic Reflex
Has two or more synapses
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Muscle Spindle Reflex
The addition of a load stretches the muscle and the spindles, causing a reflex contraction, monosynaptic
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Alpha-Gamma Coactivation
Enables the muscle spindle to act as a stretch receptor, even if muscle is part contracted
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Golgi Tendon Organ Reflex
Protects the muscle from excessively heavy loads by causing the muscle to relax and drop the load, polysynaptic
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Flexion and Crossed Extensor Reflex
Painful stimulus detected, leg flexes while other extends for support
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Motor Cortex
On the 'headband' region of the brain in between the occipital lobes and frontal lobes
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Striatum
Caudate and putamen
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Parkinson's Disease
Striatum and substantia nigra, resting tremor and difficulty initiating movements
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Schizophrenia
Caused by over-activity of dopamine containing neurons
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L-Dopa
Treatment for Parkinson's Disease, precursor of dopamine, long term use can induce psychosis
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Barry Kidston
Tried to make synthetic opiod and accidentally created symptoms of Parkinson's
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Inputs to Cerebellum
Proprioceptors and motor cortex
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Outputs from Cerebellum
Spinal cord and motor cortex
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Cerebellum
Fine tunes movements initiated by cerebral cortex
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Brainstem
Site of integration of postural reflexes
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Spinal Cord
Generates locomotor rhythms
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Somatic Nervous System
Voluntary, specialised junctions
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Autonomic Nervous System
Involuntary, split into sympathetic and parasympathetic, less specialised junctions
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Sympathetic Nervous System
Exits from spinal cord at T1-12 and L1-2, ganglia lie in sympathetic trunk or collateral ganglia
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Acetylcholine
Acts on cholinergic receptors
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Cholinergic Receptors
Nicotinic or muscarinic
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Noradrenaline
Acts on alpha or beta adrenergic receptors
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Sympathetic Preganglionic Fibres
Release acetylcholine
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Sympathetic Postganglionic Fibres
Release noradrenaline
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Parasympathetic Nervous System
Exits from spinal cord in cranial and S2-S4 regions, ganglia lies close to or within the target
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Parasympathetic Preganglionic and Postganglionic Fibres
Release acetylcholine
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Sympathetic Eye
Activates beta2 receptors relaxing ciliary muscle and alpha1 receptors contracting radial muscle
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Parasympathetic Eye
Activates muscarinic receptors contracting ciliary muscle and muscarinic receptors contracting sphincter muscle
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Sympathetic Heart
Activates beta1 receptors on pacemaker cells, increasing heart rate, and beta1 receptors on myocytes, increasing contraction strength
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Parasympathetic Heart
Activates muscarinic receptors on pacemaker cells, decreasing heart rate, has little effect on myocytes
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Sympathetic Lungs
Activates beta2 receptors on smooth muscle of airways, relaxing smooth muscle and dilating airways
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Parasympathetic Lungs
Activates muscarinic receptors making smooth muscle contract and constricting airways
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Sympathetic Blood Vessels
Activates alpha1 receptors on smooth muscle of vessels, conracting smooth muscle, and activates beta2 receptors on smooth muscle of vessels making smooth muscle relax
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Parasympathetic Blood Vessels
No effect
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Sympathetic Gut
Activates alpha/beta receptors on smooth muscle reducing gut motility, activates alpha receptors in pancreas inhibiting secretion of enzymes
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Parasympathetic Gut
Activates muscarinic receptors increasing gut motility, activates muscarinic receptors in pancreas increasing secretion
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Sympathetic Energy Stores
Activates alpha/beta receptors on liver cells stimulating glyco/gluconeogenesis activates alpha/beta receptors on fat cells increasing lipolysis
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Parasympathetic Energy Stores
No effect
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Sympathetic Salivary Gland
Activates beta receptors and stimulates thick secretion rich in enzymes
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Parasympathetic Salivary Gland
Activates muscarinic receptors and stimulates a profuse watery secretion
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Sympathetic Bladder
Activates beta2 receptors on smooth muscle of bladder wall, relaxes smooth muscle and reduces pressure, activates alpha1 receptors on smooth muscle of sphincter, contracting smooth muscle and stopping urination
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Parasympathetic Bladder
Activates muscarinic receptors on sphincter, relaxes smooth muscle and causes urination
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Sympathetic Reproductive Tract
Activates alpha1 receptors on smooth muscle of urethra, contracting smooth muscle and causing ***********
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Parasympathetic Reproductive Tract
Activates muscarinic receptors on smooth muscle of corpus cavernosum, relaxing smooth muscle and causing erection
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Autonomic Reflexes
Control sympathetic and parasympathetic systems
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Baroreceptors
Detect blood pressure
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Auditory, beside ears

Back

Temporal Lobe

Card 3

Front

Top back of head

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Vision, bottom back of head

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Ridge

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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