Physiology of Human Cells Topic 3

  • Created by: saraht83
  • Created on: 09-11-16 14:13
Types of Muscle
Skeletal, cardiac and smooth
1 of 46
Contraction
Interaction of actin and myosin
2 of 46
Skeletal Muscle Fibre
Arranged in bundles, contain nuclei
3 of 46
Muscle Fascicle
Bundle of muscle fibres
4 of 46
Skeletal Muscle
Muscle consisting of multiple fascicles connected by connective tissue
5 of 46
Posture
Static force
6 of 46
Movement
Dynamic force
7 of 46
Sarcolemma
Muscle cell membrane
8 of 46
Sarcoplasm
Muscle cytoplasm
9 of 46
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
Muscle endoplasmic reticulum
10 of 46
Skeletal Muscle Macroscopic Components
Connective tissue, muscle fascicles, muscle fibers
11 of 46
Skeletal Muscle Microscopic Components
Myofibrils, t-tubules, sarcolemma, sarcoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria
12 of 46
Myofibril
Many make up a muscle fibre, contain thick filaments and thin filaments, surrounded by sarcoplasmic reticulum
13 of 46
T-tubules
Connect myofibrils with the sarcolemma
14 of 46
Titin
Protein which functions as molecular spring
15 of 46
Thick Filaments
Polymers of myosin arranged into bundles, myosin head is ATPase and actin binding site
16 of 46
Thin Filaments
Two actin polymer helices twisted together, G-actin molecules contain a myosin binding site
17 of 46
Tropomyosin
Regulates myosin binding sites
18 of 46
Nebulin
Helps align actin
19 of 46
Sliding Filament Theory
H zone and I band shorten, actin filaments slide over myosin heads, causes contraction of muscle
20 of 46
Troponin-Ca2+ Complex
Pulls tropomyosin away from G-actin binding site, allowing myosin to bind to actin and complete power stroke
21 of 46
Glycolytic Fibre
Fast and fatigueable
22 of 46
Oxidative Fibre
Slow and fatigue resistant
23 of 46
Motor Neurone Action Potential
Sudden and fast action potential
24 of 46
Muscle Fibre Action Potential
Gradual and fast action potential
25 of 46
Muscle Fibre Tension Production
Gradual and slow contraction and relaxation following latent period
26 of 46
Neurogenic Contraction
Skeletal muscle, contracts when motor nerve activated
27 of 46
Myogenic Contraction
Cardiac muscle and most smooth muscle, contracts spontaneously
28 of 46
Isometric Contraction
Sarcomeres shorten, but elastic elements stretch, so muscle remains the same length
29 of 46
Isotonic Contraction
Sarcomeres shorten, as elastic elements are already stretched the entire muscle shortens
30 of 46
Summation
Frequency of stimulation close together, reaches action potential threshold
31 of 46
Tetanus
Frequency of stimulation close together and maintained, reaches maximum tension, can be fused or unfused
32 of 46
Resistance Trainin
Increases number of myofibrils
33 of 46
Cavaeolae
Small indentations in cell membrane between smooth muscle cells, concentrate Ca
34 of 46
Smooth Muscle Contraction
Actin filaments slide along thick myosin filaments without encountering end of sarcomere, cell becomes globular
35 of 46
Single Unit
Cells connected by gap junctions, all contract together
36 of 46
Multi-unit
Cells not connected, each stimulated separately by neurotransmitters released from varicosities
37 of 46
Excitation/Contraction Coupling
Intracellular Ca2+ concentration increases, Ca2+ binds to calmodulin, complex activates MLCK which phosphorylates light chains and increases myosin ATPase activity, crossbridges slide along actin creating muscle tension
38 of 46
Smooth Muscle Relaxation
Ca2+ unbinds from calmodulin, phosphate removed from myosin decreasing myosin ATPase activity, decreases muscle tension
39 of 46
Slow Wave Potentials
Fire action potentials when they reach threshold
40 of 46
Pharmacomechanical Coupling
Chemical signals change muscle tension without change in membrane potential
41 of 46
Pacemaker Potentials
Always depolarise to threshold
42 of 46
Sino-Atrial Node
Sends electrical current through cardiac muscle cells causing waves of contraction
43 of 46
Sympathetic Stimulation
Speeds up pacemaker cells, epinephrine
44 of 46
Parasympathetic Stimulation
Slows pacemaker cells, acetylcholine
45 of 46
Starling's Law of the Heart
Heart pumps out all blood received
46 of 46

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Interaction of actin and myosin

Back

Contraction

Card 3

Front

Arranged in bundles, contain nuclei

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Bundle of muscle fibres

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Muscle consisting of multiple fascicles connected by connective tissue

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Muscle Types resources »