Physiology and Public Health

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What are gametes?
gametes are sex cells that are produced from germline cells
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Where are sperm produced?
sperm are produced in the seminiferous tubules in the testes
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What is the role of the interstitial cells?
the interstitial cells produce testosterone
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What does the prostate and gland the seminal vesicles do?
They produce semen which maintains the viability and mobility of sperm
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What are hormones?
Hormones are chemical messengers in the blood which control the onset of puberty, sperm production and the menstrual cycle
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What does the pituitary gland in males produce?
FSH- stimulates sperm production and ICSH- stimulates the interstitial cell to produce testosterone
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What happens if testosterone levels get too high?
they inhibit FSH and ICSH production which is an example of negative feedback
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Where are eggs formed?
eggs are produced in the ovaries by germline cells
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What does the pituitary gland produce in females?
FSH- stimulates the maturation of the follicle and LH- triggers ovulation
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What hormones does the ovaries produce?
Oestrogen- causes the proliferation of the endometrium and Progesterone- causes the thickening and the vascularisation of the endometrium
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Describe the two phases of the menstrual cycle
Follicular phase- pituitary gland produces FSH which stimulates the development of the follicle, releasing oestrogen which triggers LH secretion and menstruation starts. Luteal phase- corpus luteum is formed which secrets progesterone. inhibtion lhfs
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What does a drop in progesterone cause?
a drop in progesterone causes menstruation
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What type of fertility to males and females exhibit?
males exhibit continuous fertility and females exhibit cyclical fertility
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What are the biological basis for contraception?
Contraception, Rhythm method (temp rise and mucus), hormonal method( synthetic hormones inhibit FSH and LH), physical barriers- condoms
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What are some causes of infertility?
failure to ovulate, low sperm count, blockage of oviducts and failure of implantation
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What is artificial insemination?
introduction of semen into the females reproductive system by other means than sexual intercourse. This can be used when there is a low sperm count
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What is IVF?
IVF is fertilisation outside of the body. It involves the removal of the egg which are then mixed with sperm in a culture dish which are then implantated into the uterus. IVF is normally used with ICSI
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What is ICSI?
ICSI is where the head of the sperm is injected into an egg to allow fertilisation to occur. Can be used along side IVF
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What is PGD?
PGD is used to detect genetic disorders and chromosome abnormalities, which is also used with IVF
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What is ante-natal screening?
Ante natal screening identifies the risk of a disorder so that further tests and a prenatal diagnosis can be offered
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What does ultrasound imaging detect?
can be used to produce a dating scan, the due date and the stage of pregnancy. Used inconjunction with biochemical tests
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What is a biochemical test?
detects the normal physiological chnages during a pregnancy
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What is diagnostic testing?
diagnostic testing is a difinitive test that establishes whether a foetus has a condition or not. Such as amniocentesis and CVS which both produce a karyotype
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What is an example of post-natal screening?
PKU
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What is the importance of the cardivascular system?
to efficiently deliver materials around the body
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What are the three types of blood vessels?
arteries, capillaries and veins
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Describe the role of arteries.
Carry blood away from the heart, contain thick muscular walls, have narrow lumen and carry blood at a high pressure
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Describe the role of veins
carry deoxygenated blood to the heart, carries blood at low pressure, have thin muscular walls and wide lumen
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Describe the role of capillaries
Contain thin walls that are only one cell thick for rapid diffusion. They are the site of material exchange
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What is the main vein?
Vena Cava
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What does vasodilation and vasoconstriction do to the blood?
Vasodilation increases blood flow whereas vasoconstriction decreases blood flow
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What is tissue fluid?
tissue fluid is what all cells are bathed in
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Describe the exchange of materials in a capillary bed
Blood arrives at the capillary at high pressure this forces substances out of the plasma and into fluid and pressure filtration takes place. Waste products diffuse out into the tissue fluid
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Why do lymph vessels contain veins?
lymph vessels contain valves to prevent the backflow of lymph
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What is the role of the lymph capillaries?
lymph capillaries are thin walled to collect excess tissue fluid called lymph
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How does lymph re-enter the bloodstream?
lymph reenters the bloodstream via lymph ducts
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What is Odema?
Odema is the accumulation of tissue fluid
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What does the left side of the heart deal with?
the left side of the heart deals with oxygenated blood and has a thick muscular wall
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What does the right side of the heart deal with?
Right side of the heart deals with deoxygenated blood and returns blood to the lungs
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What is the role of the coronary artery?
the coronary artery supplies the caridac musles with glucose and oxygen
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What are the two types of heart valves?
Atrio-ventricular and semi-lunar
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Where are the tricuspid AV valves and bicuspid AV valves located?
tricuspid AV between RA and RV and bicuspid AV between LA and LV
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Where does the blood leave the left side of the heart
via the aorta
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What is the role of the vena cava
vena cava returns the blood to the heart
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How is cardiac output calculated by?
CO= HRxSV
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What happens during atrial systole?
atria contract which sends blood through the bicuspid and tricuspid AV valves into the ventricles. AV valves open and SL valves close
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What happens during ventricular systole?
ventricles contract and blood is pushed out of the heart through the SL valves. SLvalves open and AV valves close
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What happens during diastole?
heart mucles relax and the atria fill with blood. SL valves forced close and AV valves open
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What part of the brain regulates the SAN?
the medulla
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State the role of sympathetic and parasympatheic nerves
sympathetic nerves increase heart rate and release noradrenaline and parasympathetic nerves decrease heart rate and releases acetylcholine
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What is used to measure blood pressure
a syphgomomanometer
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What is a typical blood reading for a young adult?
120/70 mmhg
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What happens to blood as it travels through the circulatory system?
blood pressure drops
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What is hypertension?
Hypertension is prolongued high blood pressure
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What is athersclerosis?
athersclerosis is the build up of fatty materials, fibrous material and calcium
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What impact does an atheroma have on arteries?
causes them to lose elasticity, reduce blood flow and increase blood pressure
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What is thrombosis?
thrombosis occurs when a blood clot forms in a coronary artery.
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what is a thrombus
blood clot
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What is the process of thrombosis?
clotting agents, prothrombin, thrombin, fibrinogen, fibrin threads and blood clot
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What is cholesterol and where is it made?
cholesterol is a lipid molecule and is formed in the liver
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What are the two types of cholesterol?
HDL's which are highly desireable and LDL's which are less desireable
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what does a higher ratio of HDL to LDL do?
will result in a reduced chance of getting atherosclerosis
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What are statins?
statins are drugs which lower cholesterol
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What is the impact of chronic elevation of blood glucose?
damages the lining of blood vessels which can result in atherosclerosis and nerve dysfunction
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What is the role of pancreatic eceptors?
detect changes in blood glucose and produce insulin and glucagon
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Describe what happens when blood glucose is high
insulin is produced and glucose is converted to glycogen in the liver
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Describe what happens when blood glucose is low
glucagon is produced and glycogen is converted back to glucose
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describe what happens to glucose in a fight or flight situation
adrenaline is produced and glycogen is converted to glucose
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how do you calculate BMI?
BMI= bodymass/ height2
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Where are sperm produced?

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sperm are produced in the seminiferous tubules in the testes

Card 3

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What is the role of the interstitial cells?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does the prostate and gland the seminal vesicles do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are hormones?

Back

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