# Physics: The Newtonian World

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Newton's 1st Law
An object will remain at rest or continue travelling at a constant velocity unless acted on by a force
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Newton's 2nd Law
The rate of change of momentum of an object is directly proportional to the force acting on it and acts in the direction of the force (F= change in momentum/change in time)
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Newton's 3rd Law
When two bodies interact, the forces they exert on each other are equal and opposite
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Linear Momentum
Mass x Velocity (units=kgms^-1)
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Impulse of a force
Force x Time force is acting for (I=F.t) OR change in momentum (I=m(v-u)) OR Area under a force against time graph
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Principle of conservation of momentum
Within a closed system (no external forces), the total momentum in any specified direction remains constant
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Perfectly elastic collision
A collision in which kinetic energy and momentum are conserved
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Inelastic collision
A collision in which momentum is conserved but kinetic energy is not
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The angle subtended at the centre of a circle by and arc of length equal to the radius of the circle (2pi=360 degrees)
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Gravitational Field Strength
Force per unit mass (units= Nkg^-1 = ms^-2)
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Newton's Law of Gravitation
The gravitational force of attraction between two bodies is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centres of mass ( F=-GMm/r^2)
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Kepler's third law of planetary motion
The square of the period T of a planet is directly proportional to the cube of its distance r from the Sun (T^2 is proportional to r^3)
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Geostationary orbit
An orbit of the Earth made by a satellite that has the same time period as the rotation of the Earth (i.e. 24 hours) and is in the equatorial plane
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Amplitude
The maximum displacement from the equilibrium position (units=m)
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Time Period (T)
The time taken for one complete oscillation (units=s)
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Frequency (f)
The number of oscillations per unit time (units=Hz)
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Wavelength (lambda)
The length of one whole wave from crest to crest or trough to trough (units=m)
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Phase Difference
The amount by which one wave is 'out of step' with another (units= degrees or radians)
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Simple Harmonic Motion
When the acceleration of an object is directly proportional to its displacement from its equilibrium position, and is always directed towards the equilibrium position (acceleration is in the opposite direction to the displacement)
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Damping
When resistive forces remove energy from an oscillating system causing the amplitude to decay with time
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Resonance
When the natural frequency of the system is equal to the frequency of the driver / amplitude of the system is maximum / the system absorbs the greatest possible energy from the driver
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Pressure
Force per unit area (units= Pa)
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Internal Energy
The sum of the random distribution of kinetic and potential energies of atoms/molecules within a substance
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Thermal Equilibrium
The condition whereby two objects are at the same temperature and so there is no net thermal energy transfer between them
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Absolute zero
The temperature at which a substance has minimum internal energy (0 Kelvin = -273 degrees Celsius)
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Specific heat capacity
The energy required per unit mass/1 kg of the substance to raise the temperature by 1K (or 1 degree Celsius because a change in temperature of 1 Kelvin is equal to a change in temperature of 1 degree Celsius)
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Latent heat of fusion
The energy which must be supplied to cause 1kg of a substance to MELT at a constant temperature/ without any change in temperature (solid to liquid)
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Latent heat of vaporisation
The energy which must be supplied to cause 1kg of a substance to BOIL at a constant temperature/without any change in temperature (liquid to gas)
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One mole of a substance
The amount of that substance which contains the same number of particles as there are in 12g of the carbon-12 isotope
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Boyle's Law
The pressure exerted by a fixed mass of gas is inversely proportional to its volume, provided the temperature of the gas remains constant
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Charles' Law
The volume of a gas is proportional to its thermodynamic temperature, provided that the fixed mass of gas has a constant pressure
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

The rate of change of momentum of an object is directly proportional to the force acting on it and acts in the direction of the force (F= change in momentum/change in time)

Newton's 2nd Law

### Card 3

#### Front

When two bodies interact, the forces they exert on each other are equal and opposite

### Card 4

#### Front

Mass x Velocity (units=kgms^-1)

### Card 5

#### Front

Force x Time force is acting for (I=F.t) OR change in momentum (I=m(v-u)) OR Area under a force against time graph