# Physics P3.5

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Explain solids particle structure
Strong fores of attraction hold particles close together in a fixed regular arrangement. The particles can only vibrate
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Explain liquids particle structure
There are weaker forces of attraction between the particles. They are close together but can move pass each other and for irregular arrangements. They have more energy than the particles in a solid and move in random directions at slow speeds.
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Explain gases particle structure
There are almost no forces of attraction between the particles. They have more energy than liquids and solids and are free to move in random directions at high speeds.
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What does Kinetic theory say about gases?
They consist of very small particles
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What is absolute zero?
As cold as something can get. -273 degrees Celsius-0 kelvin. Particles are pretty much still.
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What happens when you increase the temperature of something?
It gives particles more kinetic energy so they move about more quickly.
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How do you convert from Celsius to Kelvin?
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What is kinetic energy proportional to?
Temperature.
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What happens if you double the temperature (In Kelvins)?
You double the average kinetic energy of the particles.
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What does kinetic theory say about colliding gas particles?
It creates pressure as when particles hit a container they exert force on it. The amount of pressure depends on how fast they're going on how often they hit the walls.
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What happens when a gas is at a constant pressure?
Its volume is proportional to its temerature
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How does a gas increase its volume due to kinetic energy?
The particles have more KE so they whizz around faster and the gas expands to take up more room increasing the volume.
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What is the equation that makes a volume of a gas before a temperature change related to its volume afterwards.
Volume(1)= Volume(2) X Temperature (1)/Temperature(2) (The unit of the temperatures are in kelvin)
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What happens when you reduce the volume of a gas when the temperature is constant.
The particles squish up and hit the sides more often and the pressure increases. And vice versa to make the pressure decrease.
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What are pressure and volume?
Inversely proportional
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What equation relates volume and pressure.
V(1) X P(1) = V(2) X P (2) (1- initial amount 2- final amount)
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What happend if you heat a gas syringe with a bit if oxygen in it?
The plunger will move outwards as the volume of the gas will increase.
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What happens when you get a gas syringe and add it to a pressure sensor then push the plunger in?
It increases the pressure. It will decrease the pressure if you pull the plunger out.
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What equation can be used to link pressure and temperature if the gas is not constant.
Pressure (1) X Volume (1) / Temperature (1) = Pressure 2 X Volume 2 / Temperature 2
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What happens to gases used in medicine?
They are kept under pressure in metal canisters or bottles
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What are the medical uses of oxygen and nitrogen?
To help people breathe and to help them during operations.
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What is the flow rate?
The volume of gas per unit of time released from a gas bottle.
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How can the flow rate be adjusted and controlled?
With a valve
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Why are gases stored at high pressures?
To ensure high flow rate and so a lot of it can be kept in small volumes
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Why wont a cylinder empty completely?
The difference of pressures inside and outside a gas cylinder is what makes it flow. When the pressures are equal as a lot of the gas has left the flow rate will go to zero so the volume of gas equal to the volume of the canister will remain inside
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What are typical gas canister materials and why?
Steel or carbon reinforced aluminium as they need to be strong enough to handle the pressures.
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What depends on what canister is used? Give an example.
Size, Materials and pressures. Ambulances have small containers at really high pressure due to lack of space.
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

Explain liquids particle structure

#### Back

There are weaker forces of attraction between the particles. They are close together but can move pass each other and for irregular arrangements. They have more energy than the particles in a solid and move in random directions at slow speeds.

### Card 3

#### Front

Explain gases particle structure

### Card 4

#### Front

What does Kinetic theory say about gases?

### Card 5

#### Front

What is absolute zero?