Physics P1.3


What planets are in the solar system?
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus&Neptune.
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What do planets do?
Reflect light
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How do planets orbit the sun?
In ellipses
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What is the suns radius and mass?
696000 and 1.99X10(30)
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How long is the distance between the Earth ans Sun?
23000 times the Earths radius
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What is the Earths radius and mass?
6378Km and 5.97X10(24)Kg
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How long is the distance between the Earth and the Moon?
60 times the Earths radius
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What is the moons radius and mass?
1798Km and 7.35X10(22)Kg
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What is the smallest planet?
Mercury the radius is 285 times smaller than the suns.
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What is the biggest planet?
Jupiter. The radius is 10 times smaller than the suns.
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Which planet is furthest from the sun?
Neptune. It is 30 time further away than the Earth is.
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How long does it take a manned spacecraft to get to 1) The Moon 2) Mars 3) Nepune
1) 3 days 2) 9 months 3) 12 years
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What is a galaxy?
A collection of billions of stars
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Where is the nearest star to us after the sun?
4X10(13)
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How big is the distance between stars?
Hundred of thousand times bigger than the distance between planets?
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How big is that distance between galaxies
Millions of time greater than the distance between stars
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How long does ot take for light from the sun to reach the Earth?
500 seconds
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What do scientists use to look for clues of life?
Earth bases telescopes or remote-sensing technique.
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What does SETI stand for?
Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence
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What do people from SETI look for?
Narrow bands of radio wavelengths coming from outer space and meaningful signals.
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Where can signal from a narrow band come from?
Transmitter
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How do SETI analyse all of the information they get
The public can help by downloading a screensaver
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How long has SETI been a thing?
50 years
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What are scientists looking for now?
Laser signals from space
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What do probe spacecrafts do?
Record data about conditions on planets and moons. The data is sent back to Earth by micro or radio waves.
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What do robots like the 1976 Mars Viking landers do?
Take photos, collect soil and rock samples. They test the data for any life signs then send the data to Earth by radio waves
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Where else do scientists look for life?
Comets, Astroids
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What did the Hayabusa Spacecraft do in 2003?
It was the first shuttle to collect dust of an astroid
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What are the problems with earths telescopes?
The atmosphere gets in the way of them detecting light as it absorbs the light from space before it reaches the telescope. Light oluution makes it harder to pick out dim objects. Air pollution (dust) reflects light from space.
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What was the first telescope in space?
Hubble in 1990, it can see objects a billion times fainter than on Earth
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What were one of the first telescopes? What do they detect?
Optical telescope, visible light.
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Where do optical telescopes detect?
Light close and in other galaxies
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What is Cygnus A?
A nearby galaxiy
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What does Cygnus A look like through the optical telescope?
A blob surrounded by stars
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How do we view Cygnus A?
Using a radio telescope, you see two radio jets moving away from the centre of the galaxy in opposite directions which created two big lobes of radiation
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What are X-Rays telescopes used for?
To see high temperature events like explosion of stars
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What had radio telescopes helped us discover?
They discovered cosmic background radiation radiation, so it helped us understand the origins of the universe.
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What do improving telescopes do?
Let us see things in better detail, gather more light so things are less faint, let us look further in space to discover more galaxies
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How can we learn how different galaxies form and evolve?
Hubble telescopes take pictures of them at different stages.
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Why do modern telescopes use computers?
As they help create a clearer and sharper image that can be analysed at anytime. No humans are needed so it can be recordered for 24 hours a day. They also store large amount of data
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What do most large optical telescopes have?
Spectrometers
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What is a spectrometer?
A tool used to analyse light given out by stars and galaxies
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How does a spectrometer work?
The telescope directs a beam of light onto the spectrometer and through a slit. The then diffracts light and splits it up into a spectrum.
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What will light spectra from stars and galaxies contain?
Dark lines (absorption spectra)
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What causes the dark lines?
The light at those wavelengths being absorbed into the stars atmosphere
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What can the absorption spectra show us?
What the stars and galaxies are made of as each element has their own absorption spectrum
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Why is the absorption spectra from the sun similar to a hydrogen lam?
They are both made form hydrogen
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What are spectra with bright lines?
Emission spectra
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What causes emission spectra
Extra light is being emitted at those wavelengths
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What can emission spectra help us work out?
What something is made of
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What colour are galaxies further away?
Red
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If you are making a spectrometer how big does the slit for the light have to be and why?
1mm as anything bigger it will be blurry and anything smaller won't be bright
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How do you make a spectrometer?
Make a slit in a cardboard box about 1mm wide, make a 45* slit for a CD to fit in, make an eye whole above the CD and allow light through the first slit you made.
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What does a continuous spectrum look like? What would make it?
A full spectrum with no dark lines as no light had been absorbed. An ordinary light bulb
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What other spectrum could you see from a home made spectrometer?
Ones with a lot of dark lines due to where the wavelengths weren't emitted. A sodium lamp of laptop screen would show this.
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Explain the first stage of life cycle of stars that any star experiences
Stars for from clouds of dust and gas (Nebulas). Gravity makes it spiral together and the gravitational energy converts to heat energy. When the temp gets high enough the hydrogen nuclei undergo thermonuclear fusion to form helium nuclei and gives
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Explain the first stage of life cycle of stars that any star experiences pt2
out masses of energy. It remains stable as the heat created by the nuclear fusion provides and pressure that balances with gravity, everything is pulled inwards. (main-sequence star)This lasts for 7 billion years.The hydrogen runs out and it swells
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Explain what happens to small stars afterwards?
After it is a red giant it becomes unstable and ejects its outer layer of dust and gas as planetary nebula. This leaves behind a hot dense core (white dwarf) and it cools down and eventually disappears.
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Explain what happens to big stars afterwards?
They glow brightly after being a red giant as they undergo more fusion and expand and contract several times forming heavier elements in different ractions. They explode into a supernova which throws outerlayers of dust and gas leaving a very dense
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Explain what happens to big stars afterwards? pt2
core (Neutron star) which can become a black hole if big enough
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What happens when we look at light from distant galaxies?
Frequencies are lower then they should be as they are shifted to the red end of the spectrum.
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What do measurements of red-shift tell us?
The galaxies are moving away from us very quickly as more distant galaxies have greater red shift then nearer ones so they are moving away faster.
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What have scientist detected from all parts of the universe?
Low frequency electromagnetic radiation (CMB radiation)
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What is CMB radiation good evidence for?
The big bang as the universe expands and cools the radiation cools and drops in frequency
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What is the only thing that explain CMB radiation?
The big ban theory and it can lead to the big bang being accepted
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Explain the big bang theory?
All the matter in the universe was compressed into a very small space when it exploded and started expanding. (We use this to tell how old the universe is) around 14 billion years old. We can't really tell as expansion has slowed down since then.
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What would happened id the big band happened an there was no gravity?
It would carry on at the same rate forever. However as there there is all the asses attract each other slowing the expansion down.
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What is the steady state theory?
The universe has always existed as it did now and always will do. It explains red shift by suggesting that matter is being created in the spaces as the universe expands.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What do planets do?

Back

Reflect light

Card 3

Front

How do planets orbit the sun?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the suns radius and mass?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How long is the distance between the Earth ans Sun?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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