# Physics - Newtonian world

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Newton's first law
an object will remain at rest or continue travelling at a constant velocity unless acted upon by a force
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Newton's second law
the rate of change of momentum of an object is directly proportional to the resultant force acting upon it and the change in the momentum is in the same direction as the force
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Newton's third law
when body A exerts a force on body B ,body B exerts an equal and opposite force on body A
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Newton's law of gravitation
the gravitational force of attraction between two bodies is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centres of mass
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Linear momentum
the product of an object’s mass and velocity
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Impulse
the product of the force acting on a body and the time it is acting. Can also be considered to be the change in momentum of a body.
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Principle of conservation of momentum
in the absence of external forces the total momentum of a system remains constant
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Perfectly elastic collision
collision where kinetic energy and momentum are conserved
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Inelastic collision
a collision where momentum is conserved but kinetic energy is not
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Geostationary orbit
an orbit of the Earth made by a satellite that has the same time period as the rotation of the earth and is in the equatorial plane
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Kepler's third law
the period of a planet orbiting the sun squared is proportional to the mean radius of its orbit cubed
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Specific heat capacity
energy required to raise the temperature of 1kg of a substance by 1K.
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Specific latent heat of fusion
the energy required to change the state of 1kg of a substance at its melting point from solid to liquid
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Specific latent heat of vaporisation
the energy required to change the state of 1kg of a substance at its boiling point from liquid to gas
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Boyle's law
the volume of a fixed mass of gas is inversely proportional to pressure exerted on it, provided temperature remains constant.
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Internal energy
the sum of the random distribution of kinetic and potential energies associated with the molecules of a system
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Pressure
force per unit area, measured in pascals (Pa)
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Simple harmonic motion
when the acceleration of an object is proportional to its displacement x and the acceleration is in the opposite direction to the displacement
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Phase difference
- a measure of the relationship between the patterns of vibrations at two points
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Gravitational field strength
the gravitational field strength at any point is the force acting per unit mass at that point (measured in Nkg-1)
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Amplitude
the maximum displacement from the rest or equilibrium position
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Period
the time taken for one complete pattern of oscillation
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Frequency
the number of oscillations per unit time
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Radian
- one radian is the angle subtended at the centre of a circle by an arc of length equal to the circle’s radius
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Displacement
distance travelled in a particular direction
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Angular freuency
rate of change of angular displacement during rotation
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Absolute zero
the temperature at which a substance has minimum internal energy
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Centripetal acceleration
the acceleration of a body moving in a circle with constant speed acting towards the centre of the circle (measured in ms-2)
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Centipetal force
the resultant force on an object acting towards the centre of the circle causing it to move in a circular path (measured in N)
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

the rate of change of momentum of an object is directly proportional to the resultant force acting upon it and the change in the momentum is in the same direction as the force

#### Back

Newton's second law

### Card 3

#### Front

when body A exerts a force on body B ,body B exerts an equal and opposite force on body A

### Card 4

#### Front

the gravitational force of attraction between two bodies is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centres of mass

### Card 5

#### Front

the product of an object’s mass and velocity

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