Physics Module 3

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What is the equation for average speed?
1/2(U + V)
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How can an objects acceleration change?
If it's speed is changing, it's direction is changing or both together
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What is the equation for force?
Force = Mass x Acceleration
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What is thinking distance?
The distance travelled between realising there is a need to brake and the brakes starting to act
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What is braking distance?
The distance taken to stop once the brakes have been applied
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What is the equation for stopping distance?
Stopping Distance = Thinking Distance + Braking Distance
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List some factors that effect thinking distance
Lack of concentration / tiredness / greater speed / alcohol or drugs
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List some factors that effect braking distance
Road conditions (e.g wet, icy etc) / Car conditions (e.g worn tyres or brakes) / greater speed
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On a distance-time graph, what does the gradient represent?
Speed
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On a speed-time graph, what does the gradient represent?
Acceleration
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A car with high fuel consumption is bad for the environment. Why?
It means it requires more fuel and so more fossil fuel which is a finite source and contributes to the greenhouse effect as when burnt, it releases CO2
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What is the equation for work done?
Work Done (J) = Force x Distance (moved in direction of force)
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What is the equation for weight?
Weight (N) = Mass (kg) x Gravitational Force (m/s2)
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Power is what?
A measurement of how quickly work is being done
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What are the equations for power?
Power (W) = Work Done (J) / Time Taken (s) OR Power = Force x Speed
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What is the equation for kinetic energy?
1/2mv2
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How can you change the kinetic energy of an object?
Increase the object's mass or speed
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braking force x braking distance =
Change in Kinetic Energy
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List some fuels to power vehichles
Petrol / Diesel / Liquid Bio-fuels / Bio-gas / Electricity / Solar Power
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For fuel, we rely on petrol and diesel. Why is this bad?
Fossil fuels are finite as they take millions of years to form. If we don't have an alternative, we'll be stuck for fuel to power everyday items. Also fossil fuels release CO2 which is contributes to the greenhouse effect
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Why are bio-fuels and solar power preferable to fossil fuels?
They are renewable sources of energy and give off little pollution
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Do electrically powered cars pollute the environment?
Not at the point of use. However, battery powered cars need recharging and the electricity comes from a power station which does give off pollution
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List the advantages of bio-fuel and solar powered cars
Reduce pollution at point of use / could lead to an overall reduction in CO2 emissions
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List the disadvantage of bio-fuel and solar powered cars
They produce pollution when being produced/manufactured
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How can the shape of an object effect fuel consumption?
If a car is less aerodynamic, it will take more energy to reach or maintain a higher speed and so more fuel is used up
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What is the equation for momentum?
Momentum (kgm/s) = Mass x Velocity (m/s)
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Momentum is a what quality meaning you must always do what?
Momentum is a vector quality meaning it must have direction as well as a numerical answer
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How can we use momentum to calculate force?
Force = Change in Momentum / Time
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How do safety procedures work?
A sudden change of momentum can cause a large force to be exerted which can cause injuries on passengers. Safety procedures spread the change of momentum over a longer time and so minimizes injuries as there is a lower force exerted
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How can you spread momentum?
Increase stopping/collision time / Increase stopping/collision distance / Decrease acceleration
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How do crumple zones on a car protect the occupant?
By changing shape in a crash, they absorb energy and increase the time between impact and stopping
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What are the problems with seat belts?
They have to be replaced after a crash as the material has stretched and so will be ineffective the next time it is used. Also injuries can be caused by seat belts and can trap someone when car is burning or submerged if the seat belt locks
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What does and ABS system do?
They prevent the wheels from locking if a driver brakes hard on slippery surface and so prevents skidding and accidents
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How can friction be reduced?
Use a lubricant / make he shape more aerodynamic
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What is terminal velocity?
The maximum speed an object can travel at
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How do you work out G.P.E?
G.P.E = Mass x Gravitational Field Strength x Height
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What is G.P.E?
The energy something has because of its height off the ground. The energy used to raise the object is stored and can be changed into kinetic energy if it falls.
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How is kinetic energy linked to G.P.E?
Kinetic Energy Gained = G.P.E Lost (1/2mv2 = mgh)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How can an objects acceleration change?

Back

If it's speed is changing, it's direction is changing or both together

Card 3

Front

What is the equation for force?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is thinking distance?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is braking distance?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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