# Physics for your future

• Created by: faholly21
• Created on: 11-06-15 15:15
Acceleration
A measure of how quickly the velocity of something is changing. It can be positive if the object is speeding up or negative if it is slowing down.
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Action
One of a pair of forces. The reaction force acts in the opposite direction and or a different object
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Activity
The number of emissions of ionising radiation from a sample in a given time. This is usually given in Becquerel
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Air Bag
Road safety device in which a bag suddenly inflates with gas to act as a cushion and reduce injury
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Air resistance
The force opposing the motion of an object moving through the air, sometimes called drag.
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Alpha Particle
The largest of the particles that can be emitted as radiation from an unstable nucleus. Consists of two protons and two electrons (equivalent to a helium 4 nucleus)
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Alternating current
Current whose direction changes many times a second
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Ammeter
An instrument for measuring the size of a current. It is put into a circuit in series with other components
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Ampere
The unit for measuring current. 1 amp = flow of 1 coulomb of charge per second.
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Background Count
The average no of counts recorded Geiger-Muller tube in a certain time from background radiation.
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Background Radiation
Ionising radiation that is around all the time from a no of sources. Some background radiation is naturally occurring some from human activities e.g hospitals
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Becquerel (Bq)
Units for the activity of a radioactive objects. 1 Becquerel = 1 radioactive decay per second.
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Beta Particle
Particle of radiation emitted from the nucleus of a radioactive atom when it decays. It is an electron
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Braking distance
Distance travelled by vehicle whilst the brakes are working to bring it to a halt
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Chain reaction
The sequence of reactions produced when a nuclear fission reaction triggers one or more further fission.
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Conservation of Energy
The fact that energy can be transferred but the total amount of all forms of energy before is equal to the total afterwards
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Conserved
A quantity is kept the same throughout e.g momentum
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Control Rod
A rod that can be lowered into the core of a nuclear reactor, absorb neutrons and slow down the chain reaction
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Core
The part of a nuclear reactor where controlled fission takes place.
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Cosmic Rays
Charged particles with a high energy that come from stars, neutron stars, black holes and supernovae
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Coulomb (c)
The unit for measuring charge
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Crumple zone
A vehicle safety device in which part of the vehicle is designed to crumple in a crash reducing the force of impact.
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Current
A movement of electrons (or other charged particles )
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Daughter nucleus
A nucleus produced when the nucleus of an unstable atom splits into two during fission or when a radioactive nucleus decays by emitting an alpha or beta particles
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Diode
A component that lets electric current flow through it in only one direction.
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Direct Current
Electric current that flows in the same direction all the time
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Discharge
To remove an electric charge by conduction
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Distance
How far something has travelled
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Distance-Time graph
A graph of the distance travelled against time for a moving object. The slope on a distance-time graph gives the speed of a body.
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Earth (Electricity)
To connect something to earth so that any electrostatic charge can flow away
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Electrostatic Charge
An overall electric charge caused by an object gaining or losing electrons
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Electrostatic replusion
A force between two electrical charges that have the same sign that pushes them apart
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Energy transfer
Energy being moved from one place to another, possibly with a change in energy form at the same time.
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Filament Lamp
A light bulb whose resistance increases when it gets hot
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Force
An interaction on an object that can cause it to accelerate
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Free- body diagram
A diagram of an object showing all the forces acting upon it and the size and direction of those forces.
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Friction
A force between two surfaces that resists motion and is always opposite to the direction of a moving object
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Gamma Ray
A high-frequency electromagnetic wave emitted from the nucleus of a radioactive atom. Gamma rays have the highest frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum.
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Geiger- Muller tube
A device that can detect ionising radiation and is used to measure the activity of a radioactive source
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Gravitational field strength
A measure of how the strong of force of gravity is somewhere
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Gravitational Potential Energy
The energy stored in things that can fall
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Half life
The average time taken for half of the radioactive nuclei to have decayed
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High Level Waste (HLW)
Highly radioactive waste which produces large amounts of ionising radiation. The radioactivity decreases over a few tens of years and it becomes ILW
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in parallel
Components connected so the current splits up. Some of the current will flow through one component and some will flow through each other.
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in series
A component connected in a circuit so that current must pass through it to the rest of the circuit.
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Induction
When a object is charged by another charged object placed close to it
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Induced Charge
An electrostatic charge cause by another charged object being brought near.
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Interact
When two objects interact, there is always a pair of forces. The forces always act on different objects - one force on each object involved in the interaction.
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Intermediate- Level Waste (ILW)
Materials which have become radioactive because they have been in a nuclear reactor. Remains radioactive for tens of thousands of years.
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Ionising Radiation
Form of radiation that causes ionisation in atoms of the material it passes through. The atoms lose or gain electrons and become charged - they become ions.
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Irradiate
To use powerful doses of gamma rays to sterilise food or medical equipment.
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Light Dependant Resistor (LDR)
A resistor whose resistance gets lower when light shines on it
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Low- level waste
Slightly radioactive waste, usually clothing and medical equipment (stays like this for tens of thousands of years )
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Mass
A measure og the amount og material that there is in an object
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Moderator
A substance in a nuclear reactor which slows down neutrons so that they can be absorbed by the nuclear fuel more easily.
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Momentum
Measure of motion , mass x velocity
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Mutation
A change in the base sequence of DNA (often as a result to an exposure to radiation)>
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Nuclear fission
The reaction when the nucleus of a large atom such as uranium splits into two smaller nuclei
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Nuclear Fusion
The reaction when the nuclei of light atoms such as hydrogen, combine to make the nucleus of a heavier atom.
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Nuclear Reaction
The part of a nuclear power station that contains the fuel rods, control rods and moderator and coolant
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Ohm
The unit for measuring resistance
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Parallel Circuit
A circuit in which there is more than one path for the current to follow
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Penetration Distance
The distance ionising radiation can go through a substance.
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Potential Difference
Another word for voltage. It is the difference in the energy carried by electrons before and after they've gone through a component
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Power
The amount (rate) of energy transferred per second. The units are watts
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Radioactive
A substance that gives out ionising radiation such as alpha or beta particle or gamma rays is radioactive
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Radioactive decays
When an unstable nucleus changes by giving out ionising radiation to become more stable.
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Radioactive waste
Material left over after the fission of uranium that is radioactive
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Radiotheraphy
Use of ionising radiation to treat diseases such as to kill cancer cells
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Radon
Naturally occurring radioactive gas that is emitted from rocks under ground as a result of decay of radioactive uranium. In some parts of the Uk, it is emitted at dangerous levels.
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Reaction
One pair of forces. This acts in the opposite direction and on a different object to the action force.
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Reaction time
Time taken to respond to a stimulus affected by the speed of activity in the brain and nervous system
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Resistance
How easy or difficult it is for an electric current to flow through something
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Resultant force
The total force that results from two or more forces acting upon a single object . It is found by adding together the forces , taking into account their directions
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Seat belt
Vehicle safety device in which a material ***** holds a person in place within vehicle. It is designed to stretch in an impact reducing the force of an impact
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Series Circuit
A circuit in which there is only one loop for the current to flow through, so the current goes through all the components one after another
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Shielding
Prevents ionising radiation and stray neutrons escaping from the nuclear reaction
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Speed
Measure of the distance an object travels in a given time measured in m/s
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Static Electricity
Electric charges on insulating materials
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Sterilise
To destroy bacteria, viruses etc carried out by using a radioactive source
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Stopping Distance
The sum of the thinking and braking distances
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Terminal Velocity
A constant maximum velocity reached by objects falling. This happens when the weight downwards is equal to air resistance upwards
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Thermistor
A component whose resistance gets smaller when it gets otter
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Thinking distance
Distance travelled by a vehicle whilst the driver reacts
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Toxic
Poisonous
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Tracer
A radioactive substance that is deliberately injected into the body or into moving water. It allows the movement of the substance to be followed by detecting the ionising radiation emitted
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Transer
Energy changing form
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Unstable
Unstable nucleus is one that will decay and give out ionising radiation
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Variable Resistor
Resistor whose resistance can be changed by turning a knob or moving a slider.
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Vector
Quantity that has a magnitude and direction e.g momentum, velocity and force
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Velocity
Speed of an object in a particular direction. Usually measured in metres per seconds
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Voltmeter
Instrument for measuring potential difference across a current
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Watt (W)
unit for power. 1 watt =1 joule of energy transferred every second
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Weight
Force pulling an object downwards it depends upon the mass of the object and the gravitational field strength
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Work
Transfer of energy
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

One of a pair of forces. The reaction force acts in the opposite direction and or a different object

Action

### Card 3

#### Front

The number of emissions of ionising radiation from a sample in a given time. This is usually given in Becquerel

### Card 4

#### Front

Road safety device in which a bag suddenly inflates with gas to act as a cushion and reduce injury

### Card 5

#### Front

The force opposing the motion of an object moving through the air, sometimes called drag.

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