# Physics Definitions

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- Created by: Alibunn
- Created on: 04-03-14 10:16

Electric Charge

An electric charge occurs when there are fewer or more electrons than protons.

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Current

Is caused by the movement of electrons

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A.C

Alternating Current - electrons constantly change direction of motion

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D.C

Direct Current - Electrons move in one direction

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Potential Difference

Number of Joules of energy given to each coulomb of charge passing through the cell

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Series Circuit

Has only one path round it

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Parallel Circuit

Has more than one path round the circuit

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Thermistor

Resistor whose resistance changes with changes in temperature

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LDR

Resistor whose resistance changes with changes in light level

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Power

Number of Joules of energy used per second

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Specific Heat Capacity

The numebr of Joules of energy required to raise the temperature of 1kg of a material by 1 degree Celsius

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Temperature

A measure of the mean kinetic energy of the particles

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Heat

Energy of a substance

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Conservation of Energy

Energy cannot be created or destroyed only transormed from one type to another.

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Pressure

Force per unit area

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Absolute zero

Temperature of 0K or -273 degrees Celsius - particles have no kinetic energy

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Average speed

distance divided by time

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Average velocity

displacement divided by time

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Vector

A quantity that needs magnitude and direction to be described correctly

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Scalar

A quantity that only needs magnitude to be described correctly

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Distance

The total length of the path taken

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Displacement

The length between start and finish points

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Acceleration

Change in velocity per second

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Balanced Force

Equal Forces in opposite directions

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Friction

Two surfaces rubbing together

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Streamlining

Changing the shape of an object to reduce frictional forces

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Work

Energy used to move an object over a distance

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Weight

Force downwards caused by the gravitational field strength

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Mass

A measure of all the particles that make an object up

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Gravitational Field Strength

Force per unit mass

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Newtons 3rd Law

For every action force there is an equal and opposite reaction force

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Terminal Velocity

Weight down = Air resistance upwards resulting in a constant velocity

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Latent Heat of Fusions

Number of Joules of heat energy required to change 1kg of a solid into 1kg of a liquid with no temperature change

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Latent Heat of Vapourisation

Number of Joules of heat energy required to change 1kg of a liquid into 1kg of a gas with no change in temperature

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Light Year

The distance that light can travel in a year

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Observable Universe

Furthest point that we can see or detect

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Longitudinal Wave

A wave that vibrates along the direction of travel

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Transverse Wave

A wave that vibrates at 90 degrees to the direction of travel

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Wavelength

Distance from a point on one wave to the same point on the next

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Frequency

Number of waves per second

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Amplitude

Distance from the centre of a wave to the crest or trough

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Period of a wave

The time it takes one wave to pass a point

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Diffraction

Bending of waves round an obstacle

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Refraction

Chane in speed of light as it changes material

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Normal

Imaginary line at 90 degrees to a surface

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Ionisation

When an atom gains or loses an electron to become charged

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Background Radiation

Radiation all around us - either natural or man-made

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Absorbed Dose

Energy absorbed per unit mass

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Equivalent Dose

Is a way to take into account the type of radiation and the absorbed dose

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Activity

Number of decays per second

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Half Life

Length of time it takes th activity of a source to reduce to a half of its original value.

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Fission

A large mass nucleus splits into two or more nuclei of smaller mass and neutrons are released

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Fusion

Two nuclei of smaller mass combine to form a nucleus of larger mass

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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

Is caused by the movement of electrons

#### Back

Current

### Card 3

#### Front

Alternating Current - electrons constantly change direction of motion

#### Back

### Card 4

#### Front

Direct Current - Electrons move in one direction

#### Back

### Card 5

#### Front

Number of Joules of energy given to each coulomb of charge passing through the cell

#### Back

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