# Constituents of the atom (3.1.1 on specification)

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Describe the structure of the atom.
The positive nucleus is composed of protons and neutrons and is orbited by negatively charged electrons in different shells or energy levels.
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Describe the relative masses and charges of the atomic particles.
Proton: charge, +1, mass, 1. Neutron: charge, 0, mass, 1. Electron: charge, -1, mass, 0.
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In nuclide notation what does A, Z, X and Y mean?
A: relative atomic mass,nucleon/mass number Z: proton/atomic number X: element symbol Y: new element formed after emitting radiation
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What is specific charge and what are the units?
The ratio of a particles charge to it mass in coulombs per kilogram, C kgˉ¹.
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Calculate the specific charge of the nucleus of a carbon-12 atom.
Specific charge(C kgˉ¹)=charge(C)/mass(kg) CHARGE: proton=+1.60x10ˉ¹⁹ SO charge=6x1.60x10ˉ¹⁹=9.6x10ˉ¹⁹ MASS:proton=neutron=1.67x10ˉ²⁷ SO mass=12x1.67x10ˉ²⁷=2.004x10ˉ²⁶ Specific charge=9.6x10ˉ¹⁹/2.004x10ˉ²⁶=4.79x10⁷ C kgˉ¹ (to3sf)
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Define the term isotope.
An isotope is an atom of an element with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons.
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

Describe the relative masses and charges of the atomic particles.

#### Back

Proton: charge, +1, mass, 1. Neutron: charge, 0, mass, 1. Electron: charge, -1, mass, 0.

### Card 3

#### Front

In nuclide notation what does A, Z, X and Y mean?

### Card 4

#### Front

What is specific charge and what are the units?

### Card 5

#### Front

Calculate the specific charge of the nucleus of a carbon-12 atom.