Physics

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Frequency
Number of cycles of potential difference per second (a.c.)
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Oscilloscope
Device that can be used to determine the frequency and voltage of an a.c. supply
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Time base
Time interval represented by each horizontal square on an oscilloscope
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Time period
The time taken for one complete cycle of voltage for a.c.
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Earth wire
Pin/wire that carries energy safely away from the device to the ground if there is a fault
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Live wire
Pin/wire that transfers energy to an appliance
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Neutral wire
Pin/wire that completes the circuit
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Residual current circuit breaker
Circuit breaker that detects a difference in current between the live and neutral wire
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Double-insulated
Describes an appliance in which all the live components are sealed away from the case, so the case cannot become live
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Nucleus
Small centre of an atom containing the protons and neutrons
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Electron
Tiny sub-atomic particle with a negative charge found orbiting the nucleus
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Neutron
Small sub-atomic particle with a neutral charge found in the nucleus
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Proton
Small sub-atomic particle with a positive charge found in the nucleus
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Atomic number
The number of protons in a nucleus of an atom
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Mass number
The number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus of an atom
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Isotope
Atoms with the same numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons
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Radioactive decay
Breakdown of an unstable nucleus, giving out alpha particles, beta particles, or gamma rays
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Ionising radiation
Alpha, beta, and gamma radiation that removes electrons from the atoms of the material it passes through
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Background radiation
Radiation around us all of the time from a variety of natural and man-made sources
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Activity
Number of radioactive decays per second
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Random
Having no set pattern in which atoms will decay
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Half-life
The time taken for half of the radioactive nuclei in a substance to decay, or the time taken for the activity from a substance to halve
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Alpha particle
Very ionising, but not very penetrating form of ionising radiation. Made up of 2 protons and 2 neutrons (helium)
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Beta particle
Ionising form of radiation. It is a fast electron from the nucleus
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Gamma ray
Very penetrating but not very ionising form of ionising radiation. It is a high frequency electromagnetic wave
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Gamma knife
A special machine found in hospitals that uses gamma rays to kill cancerous tumours by focusing them on the tumour and minimising the exposure to the surrounding tissues.
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Sterilising
Using gamma rays to kill the microorganisms on medical equipment
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Nuclear fission
Splitting a nucleus into two smaller nuclei, releasing energy
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Uranium 235
Isotope of uranium that can be used to generate heat in nuclear power stations
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Plutonium 239
Isotope of plutonium that can be used to generate heat in nuclear power stations
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Chain reaction
One reaction going on to create another, which creates another, and so on, such as a nuclear fission chain reaction inside a nuclear reactor
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Nuclear fusion
Fusing two atoms to form a single, larger nucleus, releasing energy
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Nebula
Huge cloud of gas and dust in space (mostly hydrogen)
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Protostar
Ball of hot, dense gas, on its way to becoming a star
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Red giant
The result when a smaller star begins to die. It expands and cools, forming a red giant
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Red super giant
When a large star begins to die it expands and cools, forming a gigantic red super giant
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White dwarf
White-hot core left after the outer layers of a red giant break away
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Supernova
What happens when a massive star explodes at the end of its life
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Black hole
A very small, dense object with gravity so strong not even light can escape. The result of the supernova of a massive star
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Device that can be used to determine the frequency and voltage of an a.c. supply

Back

Oscilloscope

Card 3

Front

Time interval represented by each horizontal square on an oscilloscope

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The time taken for one complete cycle of voltage for a.c.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Pin/wire that carries energy safely away from the device to the ground if there is a fault

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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