# Physics 1 revision

• Created by: Georgia
• Created on: 13-04-13 11:21
Electromagnetic waves between visible light and microwave in the electromagnetic spectrum
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Emit
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Absorber
A substance that takes in radiation
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Emitter
A substance that gives out radiation
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Reflector
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Conduction
Transfer of energy from particle to particle in matter
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Conductor
Material/object that conducts
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Free electron
Electron that moves about freely inside a metal and is not held inside an atom
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Insulator
Material/object that is a poor conductor
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Convection
Transfer of energy by the bulk movement of a heated fluid
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Fluid
A liquid or gas
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Convection current
The circular motion of matter caused by heating in fluids
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Evaporation
Turning from liquid to vapour
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Temperature
The degree of hotness of a substance
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Condensation
Turning from vapour into liquid
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Temperature difference
Difference in temperature between two points
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Maximise
Make as big as possible
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Minimise
Make as small as possible
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Specific heat capacity
Energy needed by 1kg of a substance to raise its temperature by 1 degree
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Mass
The quantity of matter in an object; measure of the difficulty of changing the motion of an object (in kilograms, kg)
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Energy transfer
Movement of energy from one place to another or from one form to another
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Solar heating panel
Sealed panel designed to use sunlight to heat water running through it
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Kinetic energy
Energy of a moving object due to its motion; kinetic energy (in joules, J)= 1/2 mass (in kilograms, kg) x (speed)^2(in m^2/s^2)
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Electrical energy
Energy transferred by the movement of electrical charge
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Gravitational potential energy
Energy of an object due to its position in a gravitational feild. Near the Earth's surface, change of GPE (in joules, J)= weight (in newtons, N) x virtical distance moved (in metres, m)
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Elastic potential energy
Energy stored in an elastic object when work is done to change its shape
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Chemical energy
Energy of an object due to chemical reactions in it
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Conservation of energy
Energy cannot be created or destroyed
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Machine
A device in which a force applied at a point produces another force at another point
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Useful energy
Energy transfered to where it is wanted in the form it is wanted
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Wasted energy
Energy that is not usefully transfered
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Joule (J)
The unit of energy
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Input energy
Energy supplied to a machine
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Efficiency
Useful energy transferred by a device divided by total energy supplied to the device
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Sankey diagram
An energy transfer diagram
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Electrical appliance
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Power
The energy transformed or transferred per second. The unit of power in the watt (W)
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Watt (W)
The unit of power
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Kilowatt (kW)
1000 watts
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Kilowatt-hour (kWh)
Electrical energy supplied to a 1kW device in 1 hour
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Cost effectiveness
How much something gives value for money when purchase, running and other costs are taken into account
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Payback time
Time taken for something to produce savings to match how much it costs
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Turbine
A machine that uses steam or hot gas to turn a shaft
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Generator
A machine tha produces a voltage
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Fossil fuel
Fuel obtained from long dead biological matter
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Biofuel
Fuel made from animal or plant products
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Nuclear fission
The process in which small nuclei are forced together so they fuse with eachother to form a larger nucleus
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Renewable energy
Energy from sources that never run out including wind energy, wave energy, tide energy, hydroelectircity, solar energy and geothermal energy
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Wave
Disturbance in water
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Tide
Rise and fall of sea level because of the gravitational pull of the moon and the sun
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Solar energy
Energy from the sun
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Solar cell
Electrical cell that produces a voltage when in sunlight; solar cells are usually connected together in solar cell panels
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Solar power tower
Tower surrounded by mirrors that reflect sunlight onto a water tank at the top of the tower
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Geothermal energy
Energy from hot underground rocks
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Non-renewable
Something that cannot be replaced once it is used up
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National grid
The network of cables and transformers used to transfer electricity for power stations to consumers (i.e. homes, shops, offices, factories etc.)
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Step-up transformer
Electrical device that is used to step up the size of an alternating voltage
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Step-down transformer
Electrical device that is used to step down the size of an alternating voltage
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Constant amount of electricity generated by power stations
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Start-up time
Time taken for a power station to produce electricity after it is switched on
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Transverse wave
Wave in which the vobrations are perpendicular to the direction of energy transfer
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Oscillation
Moving to and fro about a certain position along a line
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Perpendicular
At right angles
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Longitudinal wave
Wave in which the vibrations are parallel to the direction of the energy transfer
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Compression
Squeezed together
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Rarefaction
Stretched apart
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Electromagnetic wave
Electric and magnetic disturbances that transfer energy from one place to another. The EM spectrum in order of increasing wavelength is: gamma, X-rays, ultraviolet, radiation, visible light, infrared radiation, microwaves, radio-waves
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Mechanical wave
Vibration that travels through a substance
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Amplitude
The height of a wave crest or wave trough of a transverse wave from rest position. Of oscillating motion, is the maximum distance moved by an oscillating object from its equilibrium position
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Wavelength
The distance from one wave crest to the nexe wave crest (along the waves)
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Frequency
The number of wave crests passing through a fixed point every second
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Speed
Distance moved divided by time taken
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Plane mirror
A flat mirror
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Normal
Straight line through a surface or boundary perpendicular to the surface or boundary
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Angle of incidence
Angle between the incident ray and the normal
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Angle of reflection
Angle between the reflected ray and the normal
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Real image
An image formed where light rays meet
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Virtual image
An image, seen in a lense or mirror, from which light rays appear to come after being refracted by the lense or reflected by the mirror
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Boundary
Line along which two substances meet
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Refraction
The change of direction of a light ray when it passes across a boundary between two transparent substances (including air)
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Diffraction
The spreading of waves when the pass through a gap or around the edges of an obstacle that has a similar size as the wavelength of the waves
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Sound
A form of mechanical energy
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Echo
Reflection of sound that can be heard
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Pitch
The pitch of a sound increases if the frequency of the sound waves increases
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Gamma ray
The highest energy wave in the electromagnetic spectrum
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X-ray
High energy wave from the part of the electromagnetic spectrum between gamma rays and ultraviolet waves
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Electromagnetic radiation just beyond the blue end of the visible specrtum
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Electromagnetic spectrum
A set of radiations that have different wavelengths and frequencies but all travel at the same speed in a vacuum
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Wave speed
Speed of travel of a wave
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Visible light
The part of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be detected by the human eye
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Microwave
Part of the electromagnetic spectrum
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Longest wavelength of the electromagnetic spectrum
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Band
Part of the radio and microwave spectrum used for communications
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Optical fibre
Thin glass fibre used to send light signals along
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Doppler effect
The change of wavelength (and frequency) of the waves from a moving source due tothe motion of the source towards or away from the observer
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Red-shift
Increases in the wavelength of electromagnetic waves emitted by a star or galaxy due to its mation away from us. The faster the speed of the star or galaxy, the greater the red-shift is
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Blue-shift
Decrease in the wavelength of electromagnetic waves emmited by a star or galaxy due to its motion towards us. the faster the speed of the star or galaxy, the greater the blue-shift
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Big Bang Theory
Theory that the universe was created in a massive explosion and that the universe has been expanding ever since
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Electromagnetic radiation that has been travelling through space ever since it was created shortly afetr the Big Bang- only proof of the Big Bang Theory
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## Other cards in this set

Emit

### Card 3

#### Front

A substance that takes in radiation

### Card 4

#### Front

A substance that gives out radiation