# physics

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what is static electricity?
electrostatic charge caused by the friction on an insulator
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what happens when an acetate rod rubs on a cloth
electrons jump from the cloth to the acetate
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what is a danger caused by static electricity
planes building up charge, spark between fuel and plane
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how do you prevent dangers from static electricty
earth the plane before refueling as it is then discharged
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what is electric current
the rate of flow of charge
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what is the equation for charge?
charge(coulomb)= current(ampere) x time(second)
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where are ammeters and voltmeters placed
ammeter- in series. voltmeter- in parallel
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what do variable resistors do
change the current
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what happens when energy is transferred to a resistor
heats up (can be used for kettles)
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name five vector quantities
displacement, velocity, acceleration, momentum and force
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what happens when two bodies interact
exert equal and opposite forces on each other (action and reaction)
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what is happening when the resultant force is zero
at rest, or moving at the same velocity
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what will a resultant force produce
an acceleration
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what happens to falling bodies in a vacuum
they all fall at the same rate
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how do you calculate the stopping distance
thinking distance + braking distance
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what is the use of air bags
reduces the rate of change of momentum
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what is power
the rate of doing work (measured in watts) 1watt=1joule/s
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what stays the same when energy is transferred
energy (it is always conserved)
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what is an isotope
an atom of an element with different numbers of neutrons
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atoms may gain/lose electrons to form what
ions
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name the three types of radiation
alpha, beta and gamma
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what can nuclear reactions be used for, name the two types
a source of energy (fission and fusion)
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what is the difference between nuclear fission and fusion
fission- splitting large nuclei. fusion- small nuclei joining to form larger ones
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how can the chain reaction be controlled
by using moderators which slow down the neutrons
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what are the issues with the products of nuclear fission
they are radioactive (take ages to decay)
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what environment does nuclear fission need
very hot and very pressurised
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why isn't cold fusion accepted
needs to be validated by the scientific community
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name an issue with ionising radiation
tissue damage or possible mutation
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what is a half life
time taken for half the unstable nuclei to decay
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name three uses of ionising radiation
irradiating food, sterilising equipment and diagnosis/treating cancer
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smoke alarms and tracing/ gauging thickness
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what is a device that the heating effect would be a problem
a plug- could cause a spark and fire
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what is a thermistor
a component whose resistance gets smaller when it gets hotter
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what is an alpha particle
two protons and neutrons, emitted as radiation from an unstable nucleus
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what does a control rod do
lowered into the core of a nuclear reactor, absorbs neutrons to slow down the chain reaction
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what is a crumple zone
area in a vehicle designed to crumple to reduce the force of impact
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what component only lets electric current flow in one direction
a diode
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what does a distance-time graph do
shows distance travelled against time (slope gives speed)
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what happens between two electrostatic charges with the same charge
they repel (electrostatic repulsion)
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which is the most penetrating of the ionising radiations
gamma rays
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what is a light dependant resistor
a component who's resistance gets lower when light shines on it
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how do you calculate momentum
mass x velocity
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when an unstable nucleus gives out ionising radiation to become more stable
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describe terminal velocity
a constant, maximum velocity an object reaches whilst falling. when the weight downwards is equal to the air resistance upwards
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

what happens when an acetate rod rubs on a cloth

#### Back

electrons jump from the cloth to the acetate

### Card 3

#### Front

what is a danger caused by static electricity

### Card 4

#### Front

how do you prevent dangers from static electricty

### Card 5

#### Front

what is electric current