# Physics

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• Created by: Lamide
• Created on: 21-05-14 06:38
What can energy be transferred
from one place to another by work or by heating processes.
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What do all objects emit and absorb
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The hotter an object is...
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What are dark matt surfaces good at
They are good absorbers and good emitters of infrared radiation.
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What are light, shiny surfaces bad at
They are poor absorbers and poor emitters of infrared radiation.
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What are light, shiny surfaces good at
They are good reflectors of infrared radiation.
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What is kinetic theory used to explain
The different states of matter
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How can the different states of matter be explained
By using kinetic theory
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How much energy do solids, liquids and gases have
Different amounts of energy
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What energy transfers involve particles
conduction, convection, evaporation and condensation
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The rate at which an object transfers energy by heating depends on...
■ surface area and volume ■ the material from which the object is made ■ the nature of the surface with which the object is in contact.
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Give a statement about temperature difference
The bigger the temperature difference between an object and its surroundings, the faster the rate at which energy is transferred by heating.
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What do U values measure
It measures how effective a material is as an insulator
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Give a statement about the U Value
The lower the U-value, the better the material is as an insulator.
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What do some solar panels contain
Water
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How do solar panels work
Solar panels contain water that is heated by radiation from the Sun. This water may then be used to heat buildings or provide domestic hot water.
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What is the specific heat capacity of a substance
the amount of energy required to change the temperature of one kilogram of the substance by one degree Celsius.
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What is the formula for specific heat capacity
E= m x c x 0
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What does the E stand for (specific heat capacity)
E is energy transferred in joules, J
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What does the M stand for (specific heat capacity)
m is mass in kilograms, kg
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What does the 0 stand for (specific heat capacity)
0 is temperature change in degrees Celsius, °C
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What does the C stand for (specific heat capacity)
c is specific heat capacity in J / kg °C
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How can energy be transferred
usefully, stored, or dissipated, but cannot be created or destroyed.
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Define the term 'wasted'
When energy is transferred only part of it may be usefully transferred, the rest is ‘wasted’.
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What happens to wasted energy eventually
The energy is eventually transferred to the surroundings, which become warmer. The wasted energy becomes increasingly spread out and so becomes less useful.
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What is the formula for calculating the efficiency of a device
efficiency= useful energy out/ total energy in efficiency = useful power out/ total power in
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The amount of energy an appliance transfers depends on what
how long the appliance is switched on and its power.
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What is the formula for calculating the amount of energy transferred from the mains
E = P x t
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What does E stand for (energy transferred to appliance)
energy transferred in kilowatt-hours, kWh
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What does P stand for (energy transferred to appliance)
P is power in kilowatts, kW
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What does T stand for (energy transferred to appliance)
T is time in hours, h
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What is used to heat water in some power stations
an energy source is used to heat water.
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What are examples of energy sources
■ the fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) which are burned to heat water or air ■ uranium and plutonium, when energy from nuclear fission is used to heat water ■ biofuels that can be burned to heat water.
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What can be used to drive turbines directly
Water and wind can be used (waves, tides and the falling of water in hydroelectric schemes.)
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What can solar cells be used to do
solar cells can be used to generate electricity
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How can electricity be produced
Electricity can be produced directly from the Sun’s radiation.
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How does geothermal energy work
In some volcanic areas hot water and steam rise to the surface. The steam can be tapped and used to drive turbines.
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How can small-scale production of electricity be useful in some areas
hydroelectricity in remote areas and solar cells for roadside signs.
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What is a disadvantage of small-scale production of electricity
useful it is sometimes uneconomic to connect such generation to the National Grid.
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Explain carbon capture storage
To prevent carbon dioxide building up in the atmosphere we can catch and store it.
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Where are some of the best carbon capture storages found
Some of the best natural containers are old oil and gas fields, such as those under the North Sea.
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What are the effects on the earth when using energy
■ the release of substances into the atmosphere ■ the production of waste materials ■ noise and visual pollution ■ the destruction of wildlife habitats.
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How is electricity distributed from power stations to consumers
Along the National Grid
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What does increasing the voltage do
It increases the voltage reduces the current required and this reduces the energy losses in the cables.
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They travel as waves and move energy from one place to another.
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Can electromagnetic radiation travel through a vaccum
Yes
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What is the electromagnetic spectrum
The waves that cover a continuous range of wavelengths
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What are sound waves and some mechanical waves
Longitudinal Waves
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Can longitudinal waves travel through a vaccum
No
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What does current evidence show about the universe
That the universe is expanding and that matter and space expanded violently and rapidly from a very small initial ‘point’, ie the universe began with a ‘big bang’.
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What are the ways that waves can be used for communication
Radio waves, microwaves, infrared and visible light
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What do waves transfer
Energy
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What are the waves like in a transverse wave
In a transverse wave the oscillations are perpendicular to the direction of energy transfer.
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What are the waves like in a longitudinal wave
In a longitudinal wave the oscillations are parallel to the direction of energy transfer.
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Give an example of a transverse wave
Electromagnetic waves
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Give an example of a longitudinal wave
Sound waves
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Give a rule about electromagnetic waves
All types of electromagnetic waves travel at the same speed through a vacuum (space).
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What do electromagnetic waves form
Electromagnetic waves form a continuous spectrum.
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What do longitudinal waves show
Longitudinal waves show areas of compression and rarefaction.
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Waves can be...
reflected, refracted and diffracted.
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Where does significant diffraction occur
significant diffraction only occurs when the wavelength of the wave is of the same order of magnitude as the size of the gap or obstacle.
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When do waves undergo a change of direction
when they are refracted at an interface.
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Are wavesrefracted if travelling along the normal.
No
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What is the wave formula
v = f x y
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What does the V stand for
v is speed in metres per second, m/s
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What does the f stand for
f is frequency in hertz, Hz
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What does the y stand for
is wavelength in metres, m
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television, and radio (including diffraction effects)
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When are microwaves used
mobile phones and satellite television
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When is infrared used
remote controls
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When is visible light used
in photography
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What is the normal
The normal is a construction line perpendicular to the reflecting surface at the point of incidence.
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Give a rule about the angle of incidence
The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection.
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The image produced in a plane mirror is what
Virtual
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How are virtual image produced
On a plane mirror
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How do sound waves work
Sound waves cause vibrations in a medium, which are detected as sound. Sound is limited to human hearing.
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How is the pitch of a sound determined
by its frequency and loudness by its amplitude.
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How are echos formed
By a reflection of sound
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What is the doppler effect
If a wave source is moving relative to an observer there will be a change in the observed wavelength and frequency.
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What is red shift
When there is an observed increase in the wavelength of light from most distant galaxies. The further away the galaxies are, the faster they are moving, and the bigger the observed increase in wavelength.
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How do we know that the universe is expanding
The observed red-shift provides evidence that the universe is expanding and supports the ‘Big Bang’ theory (that the universe began from a very small initial point).
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What is cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR)
It is a form of electromagnetic radiation filling the universe. It comes from radiation that was present shortly after the beginning of the universe.
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What is the only theory that can explain cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR)
The big bang theory
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Give more detail about the doppler effect
■ the wave source could be light, sound or microwaves ■ when the source moves away from the observer, the observed wavelength increases and the frequency decreases ■ when the source moves towards the observer, the observed wavelength decreases
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