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What is infrared radiation?
energy transferred by elctromagnetic waves
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What is emit?
Giving out
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Describe how global warming occurs
Sun emits short wave radiation and passes through atmosphere, long wave radiation is reflected back to the Earth and can't go through atmosphere (long wave = infrared) some long wave radiation is absorbed and re-emitted by greenhouse molecules
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What are the green house gases?
Water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane. These trap infrared radiation from going through Earth.
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What are the effects of global warming?
Ice caps melt, sea levels rise, destruction of habitat, climate change
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What are the solution to the green house effects?
Stop burning fossil fuels, and use solar energy/electrical cars etc
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Describe the structure of solids.
Tightly packed, no energy due to lack of movement, in contact with each other, may be vibrating due to the high packed/fixed position, it has a fixed volume and shape and high density.
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Describe the structure of liquids.
Not in fixed position, in contact, high energy levels due to their movement, it flows and has a fixed volume
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Describe the structure of gases.
Not in a fixed position, nor in contact, high energy levels due to movement it flows and dont have a fixed volume
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The process to turn a SOLID TO LIQUID:
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The process to turn a LIQUID TO GAS:
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The process to turn a GAS TO LIQUID:
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The process to turn a LIQUID TO SOLID:
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The process to turn a GAS TO SOLID:
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What's conduction?
the transfer of energy from particle to particle
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What is delocalised?
When particles are free to move
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Describe the process of conduction.
Metals contain electrons, electrons gain thermal energy, thermal energy is transferred to kinetic energy, then the electrons diffuse across the metal rod.
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Describe the process of convection.
The particles become less dense (cus its less packed together) particles rise to cooler area at the top + becomes more dense cus its cooler and more tightly packed together,it rises because of the heat. The particles become spread out, they sink,
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Describe the process of cooling by evaporation.
When water is heated (transferring thermal energy) the energy transfers into kinetic energy. In the molecules there are weak forces that attract and stay close together wheras the faster molecules that gain kinetic energy break away +escape.
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Describe the process of cooling by evaporation (2)
after they escape, the liquid is cooler because of average kinetic energy in molecules in the liquid has decreased
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What are the factors that affect evaporation?
Heat, surface area, creating a draught of air
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What are the factors that affect condensation?
Increasing surface area, reducing the surface temperature
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How to work out specific heat capacity?
Efficiency = M x C x θ (Efficiency = mass x specific heat capacity x temperature change)
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How do 'storage' heaters work?
They release heat at night by electricity, they contain concrete blocks because concrete has high heat capacity and doesnt heat up quickly and emits heat gradually keeping surroundings warm for longer
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What types of energy are there?
Kinetic energy, Thermal energy, Chemical energy, Gravitational energy, Elastic energy, and Electrical energy.
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What is the conservation of energy?
The amount of energy in will be always equal to the amount put out
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What is "wasted/useful" energy?
Wasted energy is the energy that comes out of something that we do not necessarily need, useful energy is the energy we need
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What is the formula for the three way triangle ... (lol) ?
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Describe the process fuels have to go through before entering the National Grid?
Boiler heats water up (fossil fuels) cooling tower cools it down, turbine spins the water creating energy generator is the storage of all electricity, and moves energy to transformer, transformer manages everything (temp) before energy enters houses
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What is nuclear fission, describe the process.
When nucleus decays it releases energy, uranium atom is very unstable in power.S, and nucleus decays splitting and giving out energy and neutrons. Every 1 uranium atom splits,produces 2-3 neutrons + ENERGY (depending on reaction) neutrons hit other
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What is nuclear fission, describe the process. (2)
uranium atoms and causes each atom to do the same this is a nuclear fission. In a nuclear reactor the process is carefully controlled so neutrons are absorbed harmlessly and so that the energy is controlled
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What is geothermal energy?
When cold water is pumped under ground + hot rocks are naturally hot heating the water up, turning it into steam and steam is taken and used as energy.
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What is wave energy?
Since seas have kinetic energy, machines are inserted into the sea that move up and down in the waves. This energy can be turned into electrical energy.
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What is hydroelectrical energy?
Since water flowing in the river has kinetic energy, we use this to turn it into electrical energy by usually building a dam and gradually letting the water flow through, and releasing it whenever we need energy.
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What is kinetic energy?
At a high tide we trap the water behind a dam, at low tide the water is released and its energy is used to generate electricity.
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What is solar energy?
Energy from the sun is turnt into electrical energy using solar cells, and we can use this to heat water up in homes
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What is wind energy?
By using wind turbines we can turn kinetic energy to electrical energy.
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Did you know...
Pylon supports the electric cables and cable supports electricity around the country and the transformer increases + decreases voltage?
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Why does the step-up transformer change the voltage from high current low voltage to the opposite way around?
Because high current would lead to high resistance and end up losing a lot of energy from the cables as the cables would have friction and turn how. Step-up transformer changes this in order for the pylon to not lose the energy.
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What does the step-down do and why?
The step down transformer changes what the step-up transformer did to low voltage high current, because we dont need high voltage in our homes as it would be dangerous!
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Did you know...
In certain times of the day the demand is different sometimes there's a surge and sometimes there isn't. It depends on the time of day.
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Did you know...
electricity is transported to us through overground cables but some people prefer underground cables since they'll be more landscape and over ground cables can be dangerous as people and animals can be electrocuted especially when it rains
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What is compression, rare fraction, longitudinal and transverse waves and pitch?
compression is push/squash in, rare fraction is the opposite, spread out. Longitudinal waves eg. sound waves and are from left to right (long) transverse waves are up and down eg, light, and pitch s something that increases or decreases depending on
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What is amplitude?
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How do you calculate frequency and wave speed?
For frequency, = number of waves per second. For wave speed = frequency x wavelength
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The angle of incidence is equal to..
The angle of reflection
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What's refraction?
When light passes through a medium such as glass/water, the light bends at this point because the speed that's travelling slows down
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What's the definition of diffraction? And what are the rules to do with amplitude, frequency and pitch?
A gap where wavelengths pass through. The rules are the higher the amplitude, higher the sound, the lower the amplitude the lower the sound, the high the frequency the higher the pitch the lower the frequency the lower the pitch.
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Did you know..
All magnetic wave speeds travel at the same length?
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What does the red shift prove about the big bang?
since red shift shows stars are moving away from us this suggests that the universe is expanding > this is what the big bang theory proposes.
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What is the big bang theory?
The theory says the universe started at a very small single point, there was an explosion, the universe has been expanding ever since.
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Card 2


What is emit?


Giving out

Card 3


Describe how global warming occurs


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What are the green house gases?


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Card 5


What are the effects of global warming?


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