# Physics paper 1 keywords and equations

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System

An object or group of objects

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Kinetic energy

0.5 x mass x (speed)2

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Gravitational potential energy

Mass x gravitational field strength x height

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Elastic potential energy

0.5 x spring constant x (extension)2

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Internal energy

Total kinetic and potential energy of all the particles that make up a system

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Specific heat capacity

The amount required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of the substance by 1 degree celcius

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Change in thermal energy

Mass x specific heat capacity x temperature change

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Dissipated

Spread out to the surroundings

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Renewable

Can be replaced

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Current

The flow of electrical charge

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Charge flow

Current x time

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Resistance

Measure of how it resists the flow of charge

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Potential difference

The difference in electrical potential from one point in a circuit tot another

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Potential difference

Current x resistance

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Ohmic conductor

A resistor where the current is directly proportional to the potential difference at a constant temperature

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Diode

A current through this will only flow in one direction

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Power

Depends on the potential difference across it and the current flowing through it

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Power

Potential difference x current or (current)2 x resistance

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Direct current

Has a direct potential difference

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Alternating current

Has an alternating potential differnence

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Efficiency

The ratio of useful energy out to total energy in

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Efficiency

Useful energy transfer / Total energy transfer or Useful power output / total power input

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Energy transferred

Power x time or charge flow x potential difference

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National grid

A system of cables and transformers linking power stations to homes and buisnesses

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States of matter

Solids, liquids and gases

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Incompressible

Cannot be squashed

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Density

The mass per unit volume of a material

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Density

Mass / volume

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Energy for a change of state

Mass x specific latent heat

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Latent heat of fusion

The energy needed for a substance to change from solid to liquid

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Latent heat of vaporisation

The energy needed for a substance to change form liquid to gas

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Sublimation

Something changes from a solid to a gas without changing to a liquid in the middle

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Atomic number

The number of protons in an atom of an element

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Isotopes

Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons

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Activity of a radioactive source

The rate at which it decays

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Contamination

The unwanted presence of materials containing containing radioactive atoms of other materials

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Irradiation

The process of exposing an object to nuclear radiation

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Half-life

The average time it takes for half of the nuclei to decay

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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

0.5 x mass x (speed)2

#### Back

Kinetic energy

### Card 3

#### Front

Mass x gravitational field strength x height

#### Back

### Card 4

#### Front

0.5 x spring constant x (extension)2

#### Back

### Card 5

#### Front

Total kinetic and potential energy of all the particles that make up a system

#### Back

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