Physics Paper 1

  • Created by: livie17
  • Created on: 20-05-18 13:29
Who made the nuclear model of the atom?
Rutherford.
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What is the radius of an electron and how much smaller is it than an atom
1x10^-10 and it's 10,000 times smaller than an atom.
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Where is the most mass of the atom?
The nucleus.
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What did bohr say about electrons?
They go around the nucleus at separate energy levels.
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What are alpha particles and what do they do?
They are helium nuclei and are stopped easily because they don't penetrate very far. Strong ionising.
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What are beta particles and what do they do?
High speeds electrons which turn a neutron into a proton. They are moderately penetrating into materials.
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What are gamma rays and what do they do?
Waves of electromagnetic radiation which penetrate far into materials though are weakly ionising. They can be absorbed by thick sheets of lead.
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What does ionising radiation do?
Knocks electrons off of atoms which creates positive ions.
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What are radioactive equations?
Equations that show radioactive decay.
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What is alpha decay?
It decreases charge and mass of atom. It decreases charge by two and decreases mass by 4.
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What is beta decay?
Increases the charge of the nucleus because it turns a neutron into a proton. It does not change the mass of the atom.
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Gamma rays cause decay. True or false?
False, they only get rid of excess energy in the atom.
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What does half-life mean?
The time taken for number of nuclei to halve.
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What is radiation measured by?
The geiger-muller tube and counter.
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What is irradiation?
Exposure to radiation.
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What is contamination?
Radioactive substances getting onto objects.
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Which types of radiation are most dangerous outside of the body?
Gamma and beta because they can penetrate the body and damage delicate organs.
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Why is alpha radiation not very dangerous outside of the body?
It cannot penetrate skin.
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What happens when alpha radiation occurs inside of the body.
It will damage very locallised areas.
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Why are gamma rays least dangerous inside of the body?
They pass straight through.
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Why isn't beta radiation very dangerous inside of the body?
Radiation is absorbed over a large area and some of it passes straight through the body.
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Name the types of renewable energy sources.
Water waves, geothermal, tides, bio-fuel, wind, hydro-electricity, the sun.
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Name the three types of non-renewable energy.
Coal, oil, natural gas.
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What are renewables limited by?
Reliability, cost and politics- because they cause protests.
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What colour is the live wire and what does it do?
Brown, it delivers an alternating current from the mains supply.
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What colour is the earth wire and what does it do?
Green and yellow, it is used for safety. If the appliance becomes live, the earth wire will carry current back to earth.
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What colour is the neutral wire and what does it do?
Blue, it carries the current back to the national grid. It completes the circuit.
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What does alternating current mean?
The current constantly changes direction.
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Why does the national grid use high voltage instead of high current?
High current generates a lot of heat, which is lost as wasted energy.
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How does the national grid change the voltage from low to high and then back again?
Step-up and step-down transformers.
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How does charge transfer energy?
The charge does work against the resistance.
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What is the same in a series circuit?
Current.
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What is added up to a total in a series circuit?
Voltage/Potential Difference.
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What is added to make a bigger potential difference in a series circuit?
More cells.
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Why does adding a resistor in parallel circuits reduce the resistance.
You've added another loop so there's more space for the current to flow through.
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What is added up to a total in a parallel circuit?
Current.
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What is the same everywhere in a parallel circuit?
Voltage/Potential Difference.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the radius of an electron and how much smaller is it than an atom

Back

1x10^-10 and it's 10,000 times smaller than an atom.

Card 3

Front

Where is the most mass of the atom?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What did bohr say about electrons?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are alpha particles and what do they do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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