Physics - P3

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  • Created by: L_Georgie
  • Created on: 30-03-16 10:25
What does the power of an appliance tell us?
It tells us how fast it transfers energy from the charge passing through it.
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What is power normally measured in/
Watts or kilowatts.
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What does a power rating of 100 W tell us?
It tells us that it transfers 100 joules of energy every second.
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What does the total energy transferred depend on?
How long the appliance is switched on for.
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How much energy does a appliance with a high power rating transfer?
It transfers a lot of energy in a short time.
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Where does the energy come from for the appliance?
The energy comes from the current flowing through it.
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What do appliances do with the electrical energy once it has got it?
It converts the energy into other forms that it may need like light, heat or sound.
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Does any of the energy actually get 'lost'?
No energy can't be lost, it just gets converted to different forms.
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What can we use to show the amount of input energy that is actually useful?
A sankey diagram.
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What do the thick and thin arrows represent in a sankey diagram?
The amount of energy, if the arrow is thick it stands for a lot of energy and if it's thin it stands for a little amount of energy.
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What does most of the 'reducing energy methods in the home' involve?
Reducing heat loss.
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Name some things that can be installed in houses to stop energy being wasted.
Loft-insulation, double glazing, draught-proofing, hot water tank jacket and thick curtains.
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What do workplaces do to encourage more energy-efficiency?
They encourage people to travel to work on a bike or by public transport. They also tell people not to print things off that aren't necessary and to switch computers off.
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What can the government do to encourage people to save energy?
Offering grants for better home insulation, running certain schemes and by improving public transport.
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Is Electricity a primary or secondary energy source?
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Name some of the non renewable energy sources.
Fossil fuels - coal, oil, gas and nuclear fuel (uranium and plutonium)
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Name some of the renewable energy sources.
Wind, waves, tides, hydroelectric, biofuels, geothermal and solar.
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What are the processors in a thermal power station?
Energy is released from the fuel through burning in a boiler to produce steam, the steam drives a turbine and then a generator converts the movement of the turbine into electricity.
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Why is burning fossil fuels such a problem?
Because all fossil fuels release carbon dioxide when burned and it can also produce acid rain.
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What is are the positive when using fossil fuels to produce energy?
Fossil fuels produce a lot of energy, they are relatively cheap and they don't depend on the weather.
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How does heat get generated in a nuclear reaction/
Nuclear fission. The atoms in the nuclear fuel (uranium) are split in two releasing lots of heat energy.
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What is the water used for in a nuclear power station?
It is used as a coolant to take away the heat produced by the fission process and the heat is used to produce steam to drive the generator.
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Briefly explain the key stages of a nuclear power station.
Energy is released from the nuclear fuel by nuclear fission, the heat energy heats water to make steam, the steam turns a turbine and the generator converts the movement of the turbine to electricity.
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What are the advantages of nuclear power stations?
The advantages are that nuclear reactions produce a lot more energy than chemical reactions, a nuclear power station doesn't produce carbon dioxide when making electricity and nuclear fuel is relatively cheap.
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What are the disadvantages of nuclear power stations?
Nuclear power stations produce radioactive waste, nuclear power needs extra safety precautions and nuclear power stations take a lot of time to start up.
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What is irradiation?
Being exposed to radiation without coming into contact with the source. The damage to your body stops as soon as you leave the area where the radioactive waste is.
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What is contamination?
When you made direct contact with the radiation by picking it up, breathing it in, drinking contaminated water or getting it on your skin. You'll still be exposed to the radiation once you have left the area.
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How do wind turbine generate electricity?
Each turbine has it's own generator inside it so when the turbine blade turn it turns the generator making electricity directly.
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What are disadvantages of wind turbines and wind power?
They spoil the view, you need to build 1500 of them to produce the same amount of energy as one coal power station and when the wind stops you get no power being generated.
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How do solar panels generate electricity?
The solar cells generate electric currents directly from the sun light.
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What are the advantages of solar panels?
They produce no pollution, there are hardly any running costs and is a reliable source of energy in hot countries
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What are the disadvantages of solar panels?
They only generate electricity during the day time, the initial costs are high and
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How does wave power work?
As the waves come into the coast the up and down motion of them drives a turbine directly.
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What are the advantages of wave power?
They cause no pollution, and there is no fuel or running costs.
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What are the disadvantages of wave power?
They spoil the view and they are fairly unreliable as you need to have waves to generate the electricity.
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What are tidal barrages and how do they generate electricity?
They are big dams built across river estuaries with turbines in them. When the tide comes in it drives through the turbines making them turn.
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What are the advantages of tidal barrages?
They produce no pollution, they are reliable and they have no fuel costs and minimal running costs.
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What are the disadvantages of tidal barrages?
They prevent free access by boats, they spoil the view and they are altering the habitat.
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What are biofuels?
Biofuels are made from plants and waste and can be burned to produce electricity.
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How do we produce geothermal energy?
You drill and put a pipe down into the Earth where there is some hot rocks then put water down the pipes which then get heated up and can produce steam to drive a turbine.
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How does hydroelectricity use dams to generate electricity?
Rainwater is caught at the top of a dam and then allowed to flow down the dam and through turbines driving them directly.
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Describe the stages of the hydroelectricity process.
Water is stored in a reservoir above the turbines using a dam, gravity cause the water to rush through the turbines and then a generator converts the movement of the turbines into electricity.
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When choosing an energy source what are the most important things to consider?
The running costs, setup costs and pollution.
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What is electromagnetic conduction?
When you create a voltage and current in a conductor by moving a magnet in or near a coil of wire.
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What cause the voltage to be induced?
As you move the magnet the magnetic field through the coil changes this change in the magnetic field induces a voltage and a current flows through the wire.How
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How is electromagnetic conduction used in a generator?
In a generator a magnet rotates in a coil of wire as the magnet turns the magnetic field through the coil changes.
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What is the national grid?
The network of pylons and cables that cover the whole of the UK.
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What does the national grid do?
It takes electrical energy from the power stations to where it's needed in homes and industry.
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Why do they distribute the electricity at really high voltage and low current?
So the rate of energy loss along the wires is very low.
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How many volts is the main supply voltage?
230 V
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is power normally measured in/


Watts or kilowatts.

Card 3


What does a power rating of 100 W tell us?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What does the total energy transferred depend on?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


How much energy does a appliance with a high power rating transfer?


Preview of the front of card 5
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