Biology B6 a -d

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state the functions of the following parts of a bacteria cells A)flagellum B)cell wall C)bacterial DNA
a. help them move b. help to keep shape and stop from bursting c. controls cell activities and replication
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What are the four common shapes of bacteria called ?
rods, curved rods, spheres, spirals
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how does bacteria cell reproduce ?
Asexually through binary fission (basically splitting into two)
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In what kind of circumstances can bacteria reproduce fast ?
when its warm and good supply of nutrients
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How do you culture bacteria ?
Using an agar plate containing agar jelly bacteria can be transferred to the plate from a sample using a wire inoculation loop
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Why kind of aseptic techniques do we have to use when culturing bacteria ?
1. wearing gloves 2. hair tied up 3. sterilising equipment 4. sealing the dish 5. disposing of cultures safety after use
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describe four ways in which disease can be transmitted and examples for each
1. In food - food poisoning 2. In water - cholera 3. air droplets - influenza (flu) 4. through contact - athletes food or sexual contact
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describe the four stages in an infectious disease
1. microbe enters the body (through nose/mouth) 2. it reproduces rapidly in order to produce more microorganisms 3. the microorganism produce toxins 4. The toxins cause the symptoms of infection
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what is antiseptic ?
Used outside the body to clean wounds and surfaces. They prevent infections rather than treat it
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what is antibiotic ?
They're drugs used inside the body to treat patients who are already infected. They only kill bacteria
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How does bacteria evolve and become resistant to antibiotic ?
1. Mutations in the bacteria's DNA can cause them to become less affect by the antibiotic, therefore bacteria with these genes are more likely to survive and pass it on
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How can a patient make sure that the bacteria doesn't become resistant to the antibiotic ?
The more antibiotic is used the more bacteria become resistant so the doctor only prescribes antibiotic if its needed. 2. It is important to take all the antibiotic a doctor prescribed for you.
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what is the equation for fermentation ?
glucose = ethanol + carbon dioxide (+ energy) ------ C6H12O6 = 2C2H5OH + 2CO
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What is the word equation for aerobic respiration in yeast
glucose + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water (+energy)
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why does yeast prefer to respire aerobically than anaerobically ?
During aerobic respiration it releases more energy
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What is used to clean waste water ?
Yeast as it uses up the sugar in respiration
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Give two ways in which energy can be transferred from biomass
1. fast growing trees can be burnt releasing heat 2.biomass can be fermented by yeast and bacteria to create product such as biogas which can be used as fuel
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What is biogas made from ?
70% methane, 30% carbon dioxide, some traces of hydrogen, nitrogen and hydrogen sulfide
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Why is methane in biogas an advantage and a disadvantage ?
ad - over 50% of methane burns easily however 10% is potentially explosive
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List three advantages of biogas over fuel
1. biogas can be burned to power a turbine to generate electricity 2. biogas can be burned to heat water and produce steam to heat central heating system 3. can be used as fuel for cars and buses
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what is gasohol
Alcohol (ethanol) is made from plant sugars using yeast. It can be used as a biofuel (a fuel produced by living things) by mixing it with petrol. This mixture is called gasohol and it is used in countries such as Brazil.
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Card 2


What are the four common shapes of bacteria called ?


rods, curved rods, spheres, spirals

Card 3


how does bacteria cell reproduce ?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


In what kind of circumstances can bacteria reproduce fast ?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


How do you culture bacteria ?


Preview of the front of card 5
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