Physics P2

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What is Passive Solar Heating?
When the sun warms something up from direct sunlight
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How could you make a solar collector more efficient?
You could track the sun e.g. put your solar in the place where it has the most sun
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What is the word equation for the energy transfer in solar pannels?
Light energy -> Electrical energy
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What are photocells made from?
Glass (transparent), Anti- reflective layer (to absorb light energy) and Silcon-semi-conductor layer (electorns released from silicon atoms by light energy)
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What kind of current does a photocell create?
Direct current
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What are the advantages of using photocells?
The do not pollute the atmosphere, they use a renewable energy source, they don't need much maintenance and they do not require a fuel
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What do you need to create electricity?
A conductor (coil of metal wire), a magnet and relative movement to change the magnetic field around the conductor
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What happens if there is no movement?
There is no induced current
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How do you increase the size of the current?
Faster movement, more turns on the coil or stronger magnet
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What is dircet current?
The electric charge flows in the same direction all the time.
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What does a boiler do?
Fossil fuel combustion and boils water to produce steam
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What does a turbine do?
The high pressure steam turns turbine and drives the generator
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What does a generator do?
It uses an electro magnet and when the magnet moves, it creates an electric current. It is a rotating electromagnet and a stationary coil
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What is resistive heating?
When you pass an electric current through a wire and it heats up
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How can resistive heating be reduced?
Decreasing the current
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What is a step-up transformer and what does it do?
It increases the voltage of the electricity before it is distributed across the national grid, to reduce energy loss due to heating
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What is a step-down transformer and what does it do?
It decreases the voltage of the electricity after it has been distributed across the national grid, so that it is safer for consumers
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When does this work?
This only works with an alternating current
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What is the word equation for calculating energy efficiency?
%efficiency = (useful energy output/ total energy input) x100
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What is the word equation for calculating total energy input?
total energy input = useful energy output + wasted energy
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What is the composition of the air?
78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen, 0.9% Argon and 0.037% Carbon dioxide
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What are the greenhouse gasses?
Carbon dioxide, Methane and Water vapour
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What are the effects of global warming?
The ice caps are melting which is increasing the sea levels. There will be more extreme weather conditions. The globe will heat up, putting species who cannot adapt to the warm, in danger
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What is the word equation to find out the electric power?
Electric power = electric current x voltage
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What is the word equation to find out the energy supplied?
Energy supplied = power x time
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What is the word equation to find out the cost?
Cost = Energy supplied in KWH x Cost per KWH - Cost = Power (KWH) x Time (in hours) x Cost
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What is off-peak electricity?
Using electricity when not many other people are using electricity so its cheaper.
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Alpha
Can travel a few centimetres in air, is stopped by paper or card and is the most ionising
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Beta
Can travel a few metres in air, is stopped by a few milimetres of aluminium and has a medium ionising ability
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Gamma
Can travel an infinite distance in air, is reduced but not stopped by absorbing it in a few metres of lead and it is the least ionising
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Uses for ionising radiation
Smoke detectors, Sheet thickness control, Streilisation and Leak detection in pipes
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What is the order of the planets?
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune
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Define Luminous
Give out light e.g. a star or lightbulb
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Define Non-Luminous
Do not give out light but reflect light e.g. planets or humans
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What are asteroids?
They are irregular shaped rock and have many craters from being hit by other asteroids
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Where are asteroids found?
They are in a asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter and they were not able to form a planet because Jupiter's gravity was too strong
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What is a meteoroid?
The piece of rock before it reaches the earth
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What is a meteor?
The rock as it travels through our atmosphere and burns up with a bright tail (a shooting star)
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What is a meteorite?
A rock from space that reaches earth's surface
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What is a comet made of?
Ice and dust
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Where are they made?
In the Oort cloud
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What are asteroids called if they are on a possible collision course with earth?
NEO'S
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What could you do if there was an NEO on course to hit the earth?
You could explode a missile near it to try and nock it off of it's course but that might make it even more likely to hit the earth
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What is the doppler effect?
The doppler effect is heard when a siren pitch changes from high as it comes towards you to low as it goes past you.
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When can the doppler effect be heard?
There has to be realtive movement between the observer and the source of waves to hear a change in pitch
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What is the red shift?
When a light source is moving away from us the wavelength increases, shifting the light to the red end of the spectrum.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How could you make a solar collector more efficient?

Back

You could track the sun e.g. put your solar in the place where it has the most sun

Card 3

Front

What is the word equation for the energy transfer in solar pannels?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are photocells made from?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What kind of current does a photocell create?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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