# Physics P1

What are waves?
Waves are regular patterns of disturbance that transfer energy in the direction the wave travels without transferring matter
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What are the two types of waves?
Transverse and Longitudinal
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What are longitudinal waves?
Longitudinal waves are waves where the oscillations (particle movements) are parallel to the direction of travel
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Name an example of a longitudinal wave.
Sound waves, ultrasound waves and seismic waves
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What are transverse waves?
Transverse waves are waves where the oscillations are at right angles to the direction of travel
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Name an example of a transverse wave.
Light waves, radio waves and gamma rays
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What is the frequency? (of a wave)
The number of waves lengths in a certain time period measured in hertz
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What is the period? (of a wave)
The time taken for one oscillation (back to where it started from and moving in the same direction)
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What are the four key features of a transvere wave?
Wavelength, amplitude, crest, trough
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What is the wavelength?
The distance between two crests or two troughs
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What is the amplitude?
The maximum distance from the centre
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What is the crest?
The highest part of the wave
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What is the trough?
The lowest part of the wave
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How do you calculate the distance travelled by a wave?
Distance (m) = Wave Speed (m/s) x Time (s)
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How do you calculate the wave speed?
Wave Speed (m/s) = frequency (hertz, Hz) x wavelength (m)
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What is the electromagnetic spectrum?
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How do electromagnetic waves work?
A beam of electromagnetic radiation contains 'packets' of energy called photons. Different radiations contain photons that carry different amounts of energy
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What type of wave are electromagnetic waves?
Transverse
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What is the order of the EM waves in order of longest to shortest wavelength?
Radio, microwave, infared, visable, ultraviolet, x-ray, gamma
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What is the ozone layer and what can it do?
The ozone layer is a thin layer of gas in the Earth's upper atmosphere. This layer of gas absorbs some of the ultraviolet radiation from the sun before it can reach Earth
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What would happen if we didn't have the ozone layer?
The amount of ultraviolet radiation reaching Earth would be very harmful to living organisms, especially animals, due to cell damage
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What is the greenhouse effect?
some EM waves reflect off the atmosphere, some pass through the atmosphere. Heat is absorbed by the earth and the surface temperature increases
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What is global warming?
The increase of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere means the amount of absorbed radiation from the sun also increases. This increases the temperature on Earth, an effect known as global warming
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Name a potential result of global warming.
1. Climate Change (it may become impossible to grow food crops in certain areas) 2.Extreme Weather Conditions (e.g. floods, droughts, hurricanes) 3. Rising Sea Levels ( the melting ice caps and higher ocean temperatures may cause sea levels to rise)
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What is reflection?
Reflection is the process where light bounces off a surface of a material
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What are the angle names and ray names in reflection?
Incident ray, angle of incidence, reflected ray, angle of reflection
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What is the process of refraction?
When the light passes from one medium to another, such as air to glass, it's speed decreases, and this results in a change in direction by refraction. When the light leaves the glass and re-enters the air (less dense), it speeds up again
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

What are the two types of waves?

#### Back

Transverse and Longitudinal

### Card 3

#### Front

What are longitudinal waves?

### Card 4

#### Front

Name an example of a longitudinal wave.

### Card 5

#### Front

What are transverse waves?