# Physics P1 1.7 Energy transfer by design.

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What does the rate of energy transfer to or from an object depend on?
*The shape, size and type of material of the object. *The materials the object is in contact with. *The temperature difference between the object and its surroundings.
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What effect does 'the greater the temperature difference between an object and its surroundings' have on the rate at which energy is transferred?
The greater the temperature difference between an object and its surroundings the greater the rate at which energy is transferred.
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Other than the temperature difference between an object and its surroundings, what else does the rate at which energy is transferred depend on?
*The materials the object is i contact with. *The object's shape. *The object's surface area.
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Why would we want to maximise the rate of energy transfer?
To keep things cool.
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How could we maximise the rate of energy transfer?
By using things that are good conductors, are painted dull black and have the air flow around them maximised.
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Why would we want to minimise the rate of energy transfer?
To keep things warm.
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How could we minimise energy transfer by conduction, convention and radiation?
By using things that are good insulators, are white and shiny and prevent convection currents by trapping air in small pockets.
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Why does painting an object dull black maximise the rate of energy transfer?
Painting an object dull black maximises the rate of energy transfer, because dull black surfaces are the best emitters of radiation.
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Why does trapping air in small pockets minimise the rate of energy transfer?
Trapping air in small pockets minimises the rate of energy transfer because convection currents cannot be set up.
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*BE PREPARED TO APPLY YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF ENERGY TRANSFER TI DIFFERENT SITUATIONS WHICH MAY EVEN INCLUDE ANIMAL ADAPTATIONS TO COLD/HOT CLIMATES**
A VACUUM FLASK USUALLY OFTEN COMES UP IN EXAMINATION QUESTIONS**
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*MAKE SURE YOU CAN RELATE THE STRUCTURE OF A VACUUM FLASK TO MINIMISING ENERGY TRANSFER BY CONDUCTION, CONVECTION AND RADIATION TO REDUCE ENERGY TRANSFER AND KEEP HOT THINGS HOT AND COLD THINGS COLD**
**LOOK UP DIAGRAM OF A VACUUM FLASK AND BE FAMILIAR WITH**
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

What effect does 'the greater the temperature difference between an object and its surroundings' have on the rate at which energy is transferred?

#### Back

The greater the temperature difference between an object and its surroundings the greater the rate at which energy is transferred.

### Card 3

#### Front

Other than the temperature difference between an object and its surroundings, what else does the rate at which energy is transferred depend on?

### Card 4

#### Front

Why would we want to maximise the rate of energy transfer?

### Card 5

#### Front

How could we maximise the rate of energy transfer?