Physics P1

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Infrared radiation
Radiation past the red visible light in the electromagnetic spectrum, longer wavelength. This is continuously emitted and absorbed by all objects.
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Prism
An object, often made of glass or water which is used to refract white visible light into the different colours of the spectrum.
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Reflection
The process where a wave dramatically changes direction after hitting a surface where angle i = r
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Emit
The process where radiation is given off by an object.
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Absorbtion
The process where radiation or energy is taken in by an object.
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Kinetic theory
The theory which explains the properties of matter based on states and the different levels of energy.
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States of matter
The 4 states with varying amounts of energy and properties which matter can have - solids, liquids, gases and plasma.
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Conduction
The transfer of heat/thermal energy through a medium, where there is a difference in energy levels, by particles colliding.
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Convection
The transfer of energy through fluids which creates convection currents in a circular motion due to density changes due to the difference in energy levels.
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Evapouration
The process where particles with high amounts of energy escape from the surface of a substance which decreases the average energy level of the remaining particles.
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Condensation
The process where gas cools and changes back to a liquid (or solid) due to a sudden reduction of the energy in the particles.
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Insulator
A material which heat/electrical energy does not pass easily through.
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Conductor
A material which heat/electrical energy does pass easily/quickly through due to conduction. Metals and graphite do this due to delocalised (free) electrons in their structures which transfers energy to other ions/electrons.
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Particle
The smallest part of a substance which is recognised as that substance. Can be an atom or a compound/molecule.
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Free electrons
Another name for delocalised electrons. Electrons not associated with one specific atom so can move to transfer energy.
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Ion
Atoms with a different number of electrons to their atom so have a charge and can exert an electrostatic force. Occur in metallic structures such as in wires or filaments.
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Energy
The ability of a substance to do work such as movement. Can't be created or destroyed, only transferred to different places or forms. Forms include: heat, electrical, kinetic, elastic potential.
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Fluid
States of matter which can flow and has no fixed shape. Gas, plasma or liquid.
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Density
The mass of an object per unit of volume. A substance or object less dense than another will rise above it. This depends on the material or temperature of the substance.
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Mass
How much there is of a substance. Constant for a specified object - not dependant on gravity. Measured in grams (g) or kilograms (kg)
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Weight
The force created by an object of said mass, taking into account gravitational field strength. Measured in Newtons (N).
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Volume
The space occupied by an object/substance. Measured in litres (l)
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Adaptation
A change in an organism to make it suitable for survivable in it's environment. Changes in surface area (e.g. ear sizes) is an example to change rate of heat energy transfer to the environment.
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Temperature
How much kinetic energy particles have, how much heat energy a substance have.
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Vacuum flask
A container designed to reduce energy transfer into the environment. Surrounded by a vacuum which stops convection and conduction. Surrounded by glass which is a bad radiator and conductor. The plastic cap stops evapouration and is an insulator.
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U-value
The rating of how effective a material is at being an insulator. The lower the rating, the better.
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Specific heat capacity
A constant value for a substance showing how many Joules of energy is required to change a kilogram of a substance by a °C
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Solid
A state of matter where the particles have low amounts of energy therefore have a fixed position and vibrate in place. Often good conductors.
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Liquid
A state of matter which is a fluid with no fixed position but has a fixed volume and not easily compressed. The particles can move around each other.
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Gas
A state of matter which is a fluid so can flow. The particles are spread out to fill up the volume of the container which they are in. Have a high energy level.
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Payback time
How long insulation or more efficient electronic devices will take to pay bck the money of their initial cost from energy savings.
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Solar panel
Panels which contain water heated from solar radiation (UV) which can be used to generate electricity, heating or domestic hot water.
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Wasted energy
Energy which has not been usefully transferred by an electrical appliance, transferred into the surroundings and dissipates.
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Efficiency
The proportion of energy or power usefully outputted compared to how much inputted.
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Sankey diagrsm
A diagram which shows efficiency based on energy transfer. Labelled with wasted energy and useful output.
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power
How much work is done. Measured in Watts (W) (effectively J/s). Can be used to calculate energy transferred by an appliance.
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Electricity meter
Device used to measure the energy used by a household (kiloWatt-hours) to calculate price to pay.
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Power station
A station which uses an energy source such as a fuel or nuclear fission to heat water to form steam, which turns a turbine then a generator to generate electricity.
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Fossil fuel
An energy source which is naturally made from sedimentation of plant matter over millions of years. Include coal, oil, natural gas.
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Nuclear fission
An process which can be usdd as an energy source where energy released from breaking nuclear fuels into smaller nuclei is used to heat water.
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Geothermal energy
Where steam produced from heat in the Earth in volcanic areas is 'tapped' and used ro turn turbines.
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Overhead power lines
Metal cables with a high voltage of electricity passing through are used over long distances in the National Grid.
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Underground cables
Metal cables are used underground to transport electricity from step-down transformers to homes.
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The National Grid
The system of cables and transformers designed to distribute electricity to consumers.
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Transformer
Devices which change the voltage of electricity. Can be step up or step down.
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Hydroelectric energy
Using water to store energy in a reservoir on a hill then releasing it in times of high electricity demand to directly drive turbines. Otherwise known as pumped storage systems.
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Stored energy
Excess energy which is transferred into a form which can be usefully transferred shen needed.
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Wave
A form which can transfer energy e.g soundwave, electromagntic. Can be transverse or longitudinal
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Transverse wave
A type of wave where the oscillations are perpendicular to the direction of energy transfer.
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Longitudinal wave
A type of wave where the oscillations are parallel to the direction of energyransfer. Has areas of compression and rarefraction.
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Mechanical wave
Waves which change the shape of a medium after contact with it's surface where angle i = r
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Reflection
A sudden change in the direction of a wave after it hits a surface such as a plane mirror, reflects at an angle where angle i = r
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Refraction
A change in direction of a wave as it changes speed when it enters a medium of a different density.
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Diffraction
Where a wave spreads out after travelling through a gap or around an object with a similar order of magnitude. Can disrupt radio waves such as for radio/TV.
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Frequency
How often a wave completes a wavelength per second. Measured in Herts (Hz), the higher the frequency, the higher the pitch.
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Wavelength
The distance between two adjacent crests or troughs of a waveform. One complete wave.
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Amplitude
The distance between a crest/trough of a waveform and it's resting position.
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Normal
A construction line perpendicular to the reflecting or refracting surface at the point of incidence.
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Angle of incidence
The angle between the normal and the wave before a reflection/refraction.
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Angle of reflection
The angle between the normal and the wave after a reflection. Equal to the angle of incidence.
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Plane mirror
A mirror witha flat surface. When a wave reflects off of it it also forms a virtual image.
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Echo
A reflection of a sound wave, most clearly heard after reflections with flat surfaces
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The Doppler effect
A change in observed wavelength and frequency from a wave source moving relative to the observer.
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Redshift
The shift of visible light waves to the observer, of objects moving away, where the waves shift towards the red end of the spectrum, an increase of wavelength.
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The Big Bang theory
The theory that the universe began from a small initial point and continues to expand after an initial massive explosion.
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CMBR
Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation that fills the universe from short wavelength radiation at the beginning of the universe. Predicted and only explained by the Big Bang theory.
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Vibration
The oscillation motion of particles, such as due to a wave through a medium or can descibe a waves motion.
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Vacuum
Space with an absence of particles so waves which require a medium such as sound can't travel through it.
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Energy transfer
The change of energy from one form to another, to a more useful place or form
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Electromagnetic spectrum
The range of waves which transfer electromagnetic radiation and energy. Have wavelengths from 10^-15m to more than 10^4m. These are transverse waves and travel at the same speed through a vacuum.
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Medium
Substances or materials which waves travel through. Can be any state but contains particles.
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Sound waves
Longitudinal waves which cause vibrations in a medium which are detected as sound.
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Virtual image
An image formed after reflection (plane mirror), formed by virtual rays of light equidistant from the mirror to the object, extended from the points of insidence. The rays appear to come from here but do not actually pass through the mirror.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Prism

Back

An object, often made of glass or water which is used to refract white visible light into the different colours of the spectrum.

Card 3

Front

Reflection

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Emit

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Absorbtion

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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