Physics - P1

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  • Created by: L_Georgie
  • Created on: 22-03-16 17:30
How many planets orbit the sun? Name them in order.
Eight, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
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Name the inner planets.
Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars.
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What is found between the inner planets and outer planets?
An asteroid belt.
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Name the outer planets.
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
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What are the main differences between stars and planets?
Stars are huge, very hot and very far away. They also give out lots of light. Planets are smaller and just reflect sunlight.
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How old roughly do scientists think our solar system is?
5 thousand million years old.
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Explain briefly how our sun was formed?
A dust cloud started to get squeezed slightly, once the particles got closer gravity took over pulling more things in eventually the cloud collapsed in on it's self. Forms a protostar and fusion occurs which formed our sun.
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After the sun was formed how did the planets form?
Around the sun materials from the cloud containing hydrogen, helium and heavier elements started to clump together. These clumps then became planets.
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What are asteroids and comets made up of?
They are made up of the stuff left over from the formation of the solar system.
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What are asteroids?
Smallish lumps of rock and rubble that float around in space.
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What are comets?
Comets are balls of rock, dust and ice which orbit the sun.
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Where is our solar system found in the Milky Way galaxy?
We are found about halfway along one of the spiral arms in the Milky Way.
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What is the universe made up of?
Galaxies, inside the galaxies are thousands of stars (solar systems).
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How do scientist measure distance in space?
Using Light Years.
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What is a Light Year?
A light year is the distance that light travels through a vacuum.
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Order these smallest to largest: Diameter of the Sun to the nearest star, Distance from Milky way to nearest galaxy, Diameter of the Milky Way, Diameter of the Earth, Diameter of the solar system, Diameter of sun and Diameter of the Earth's orbit.
Diameter of the Earth, Diameter of the sun, Diameter of the Earth's orbit, Diameter of the Solar system, Distance from the sun to the nearest star, Diameter of the Milky Way and Distance from the Milky Way to the nearest Galaxy.
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How old roughly is the Earth, Sun and Universe?
Earth and the sun is about 5000 million years old. the Universe is about 14 000 million years old.
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What does the colour that a star appears tell us about it?
The colour tells us the surface temprature of the star.
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How can astronomers work out how far away a star is?
Using parallax or measuring it's brightness.
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How does parallax work?
Pictures of the sky is taken six months apart when the earth is at the opposite side of its orbit. The apparent movement between the two photos lets you work out how away it is.
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How much to stars seem to move if they are far away?
Distant stars seem to move less than the close ones.
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How does the Earth's atmosphere and light pollution cause problems for astronomers when they are trying to detect light?
The atmosphere absorbs quite a bit of the light coming from space before it reaches us. Light pollution makes it hard for us to see dim objects.
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What is the solution to the problems that light pollution and the Earth's atmosphere cause?
Put a telescope in space.
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How can we tell that a galaxy is moving away from us?
Red shift. When a galaxy is moving away from us the wavelength of the light from it changes and becomes redder.
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How can we figure out how fast the galaxies are moving away from us?
By seeing how great the red shift is. The greater the red shift the faster it's moving away.
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From observations of red shift what have astronomers found out?
That the more distant the galaxy the faster it moves away from us.
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What does red shift provide evidence for?
It proves that the universe is expanding.
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What happened to all the matter and energy in the universe according to the Big Bang theory?
All the matter and energy must have been compressed into a very small space and then it must have exploded and started to expand.
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What two things provide a record of the changes in the Earth?
Fossils and rocks.
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Briefly describe the rock cycle.
Rocks get eroded and the sediments get washed into rivers and then the sea, this forms sedimentary rocks. Then the rock either gets pushed back to the surface to start the process again or pushed down and gets heated and crushed inside the earth.
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Explain Wegener's theory of continental drift.
He believed that originally there was just one big 'super continent' called Pangaea. Later Pangaea broke into little chunks and drifted apart.
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Why wasn't Wegener's explanation accepted at first?
Because he wasn't a geologist and his explanation of how the drifting occurred was proved wrong.
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How did the scientists find proof that supported the continental drift theory?
They found out that sea floor spreading was occurring at the Mid-Atlantic ridge resulting in the continents moving apart form each other.
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What caused the stripe pattern on the sea floor near the Mid-Atlantic ridge?
The iron particles in the newly created rock align themselves with Earth's current magnetic field and because every thousands of years the magnetic field swaps direction meaning the new rocks will face a different way creating the 'stripes'.
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What are the four layers of the Earth?
The crust, mantle, outer core and inner core.
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What causes the convection currents in the mantle?
The heat from the core and heat form the radioactive decay in the mantle.
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How do the tectonic pplates move?
They get pushed by the convection currents when the float on the mantle.
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Where do earthquakes often occur?
Earthquakes often occur along the edge of tectonic plates.
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Where are volcanoes formed?
They form at the boundaries between two tectonic plates.
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What are the two types of seismic waves?
P-waves and S-waves.
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Describe where P-waves can travel, there speed and state what type of wave they are.
P-waves can travel through solids and liquids (Crust, mantle, outer core and inner core). They travel faster than S-waves and are longitudinal.
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Describe where S-waves can travel, there speed and state what type of wave they are.
S-waves can only travel through solids (crust and mantle). They travel slower than P-waves and are transverse.
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What happens when a seismic wave reaches different layers of the Earth?
The waves will change speed as the properties of the layer changes because of the change in speed the waves change direction.
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What is the definition of amplitude of a wave?
the distance from the rest position to the crest or trough of the wave.
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What is the definition of wave length?
The length of a full cycle of the waves (From crest to crest).
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What is the definition of frequency of a wave?
The number of complete waves passing a certain point per second or the number of waves produced by a source each second.
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What is a transverse wave?
A wave where the vibrations are at 90 degrees to the direction of travel of the wave.
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What is a longitudinal wave?
A wave where the vibrations are along the same direction as the wave is travelling.
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How do you work out the speed of a wave?
Speed = Frequency x Wavelength
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Name the inner planets.

Back

Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars.

Card 3

Front

What is found between the inner planets and outer planets?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Name the outer planets.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the main differences between stars and planets?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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