Physics OCR, P1

HideShow resource information
What makes up the solar system?
8 planets orbiting the sun, as well as asteroids, dwarf planets and comets and moons orbiting several planets.
1 of 49
What are planets?
8 large masses that orbit the sun in elliptical orbits
2 of 49
What are dwarf planets?
small masses orbiting the sun (e.g Pluto)
3 of 49
What are moons?
small masses that orbit planets in elliptical orbits
4 of 49
What are asteroids?
small, rocky masses that orbit the sun in elliptical orbits
5 of 49
what are comets?
small, icy masses that orbit the sun in a highly elliptical orbit
6 of 49
When was the solar system formed?
about 5000 million years ago
7 of 49
How was the solar system formed?
Started as dust and gas pulled together by gravity. Created intense heat, nuclear fusion began and the sun was created. Remaining dust and gas formed smaller masses, attracted to the sun.
8 of 49
What are the relative sizes in the universe?
(print table from
9 of 49
Where does the evidence for distant stars and galaxies come from?
radiation astronomers can detect
10 of 49
What speed does light travel through space (a vacuum)?
a very high but finite speed, 300,000km/s
11 of 49
What is a light year?
the distance travelled by light in a year
12 of 49
What does the finite speed of light result in?
distant objects are observed as they were in the past, when the light we now see has left them
13 of 49
What is Parallax?
used to work out the distance of a star. The closer the star, the more it appears to move. The further the star, the less accurate the information
14 of 49
What is relative brightness used for?
to estimate the distance to a star. The dimmer the star, the further away it is
15 of 49
What interferes with observations of the night sky?
Light pollution and other atmospheric conditions
16 of 49
What type of radiation do stars produce?
visible light, ultraviolet and infrared
17 of 49
What is the source of the sun's energy?
fusion of hydrogen nuclei into helium
18 of 49
Where were all chemical elements with atoms heavier than helium made?
in stars by nuclear fusion
19 of 49
What does the red shift suggest?
that distant galaxies are moving away from us. The further away a galaxy is, the faster it is moving away from us. Therefore the universe is expanding
20 of 49
How do scientists believe the universe was created?
The Big Bang 14 billion years ago
21 of 49
Why is it hard to predict the future of the universe?
difficulties in measuring the very large distances involved, the mass of the universe and studying the motion of very distant objects
22 of 49
How do rocks provide evidence for changes in the Earth?
erosion and sedimentation (oldest layers are at the bottom), fossils, craters (erased by erosion), folding (requires huge force), radioactivity of rocks (decreases over time)
23 of 49
What stops the continents being eroded down to sea level?
mountain formation
24 of 49
What can the age of the Earth be estimated from?
It must be greater than the age of it's oldest rocks
25 of 49
What is Wegener's theory of continental drift?
the continents used to fit together but continental drift meant they moved apart
26 of 49
What is the evidence for continental drift?
continents fitted together like a jigsaw (Pangaea), fossils, mountain ranges and rock patterns matching up
27 of 49
How does Wegener's theory relate to mountain formation?
when two continents collided they forced each other upwards, forming mountains
28 of 49
Why were Wegener's ideas rejected at the time?
he wasn't a geologist, evidence was limited, there was the simpler explanation of a bridge connecting the continents, movements of continents not detectable
29 of 49
What is seafloor spreading?
the convection currents in the mantle (due to heating by the core) force the tectonic plates apart and magma reaches the surface and hardens
30 of 49
What explains the pattern of magnetisation of sea floor rocks on either side of the oceanic ridges?
periodic reversals of the Earth's magnetic field
31 of 49
Where does seafloor spreading take place?
constructive plate boundaries, where plates are moving apart
32 of 49
What causes volcanoes and where do they form?
at destructive plate boundaries, oceanic and continental plates collide and the denser oceanic plate if forced under (subduction). Oceanic plate melts and molten rock rises to form volcanoes.
33 of 49
What causes mountain ranges and where do they form?
form at colliding plate boundaries and sedimentary rock is forced up by the pressure created in a collision
34 of 49
Why do earthquakes occur?
at plate boundaries, plates slide past or collide and pressure builds up. Stored energy is released and waves of energy are released from the epicentre
35 of 49
Why is plate movement crucial to the rock cycle?
old rock is destroyed through subduction. Igneous rock formed when magma reaches the surface. Plate collisions cause rock to fold. Sedimentary rock becomes metamorphic.
36 of 49
What waves to earthquakes produce?
P and S waves
37 of 49
What are waves?
regular patterns of disturbance that transfer energy from one point to another without transferring particles of matter
38 of 49
What can P (longitudinal) waves do?
travel through solids and liquids and liquid region of Earth's outer core
39 of 49
what can S (transverse) waves do?
travel through solids only
40 of 49
What travels as longitudinal waves?
41 of 49
What travels as transverse waves?
light and water ripples
42 of 49
What happens to each particle in longitudinal waves?
vibrate backwards and forwards about its normal position and in the same plane as direction of wave movement
43 of 49
What happens to each particle in transverse waves?
vibrate up and down about its normal position and at right angles to direction of wave movement
44 of 49
What is the frequency of waves (Hertz, Hz)?
number of waves produced each second
45 of 49
What is the wavelength of waves?
the distance between the corresponding points on two adjacent cycles
46 of 49
What is the amplitude of a wave?
the distance from the maximum displacement to the undisturbed position
47 of 49
What is the equation for wave speed?
wave speed (m/s) = frequency (Hz) x wavelength (m)
48 of 49
What do you need for a constant wave speed?
the wavelength of the wave should be inversely proportional to the frequency
49 of 49

Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are planets?


8 large masses that orbit the sun in elliptical orbits

Card 3


What are dwarf planets?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What are moons?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What are asteroids?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards



Btw, this is P2 not P1


No, this is P1 The Earth in the Universe etc


Is this for OCR Gateway? Mate, this is C2 as well :/


@Hxneul._.Chan your right, its C2, P1 and P2

Similar Physics resources:

See all Physics resources »See all P1 resources »