Physics OCR, P1

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What makes up the solar system?
8 planets orbiting the sun, as well as asteroids, dwarf planets and comets and moons orbiting several planets.
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What are planets?
8 large masses that orbit the sun in elliptical orbits
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What are dwarf planets?
small masses orbiting the sun (e.g Pluto)
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What are moons?
small masses that orbit planets in elliptical orbits
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What are asteroids?
small, rocky masses that orbit the sun in elliptical orbits
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what are comets?
small, icy masses that orbit the sun in a highly elliptical orbit
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When was the solar system formed?
about 5000 million years ago
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How was the solar system formed?
Started as dust and gas pulled together by gravity. Created intense heat, nuclear fusion began and the sun was created. Remaining dust and gas formed smaller masses, attracted to the sun.
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What are the relative sizes in the universe?
(print table from
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Where does the evidence for distant stars and galaxies come from?
radiation astronomers can detect
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What speed does light travel through space (a vacuum)?
a very high but finite speed, 300,000km/s
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What is a light year?
the distance travelled by light in a year
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What does the finite speed of light result in?
distant objects are observed as they were in the past, when the light we now see has left them
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What is Parallax?
used to work out the distance of a star. The closer the star, the more it appears to move. The further the star, the less accurate the information
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What is relative brightness used for?
to estimate the distance to a star. The dimmer the star, the further away it is
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What interferes with observations of the night sky?
Light pollution and other atmospheric conditions
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What type of radiation do stars produce?
visible light, ultraviolet and infrared
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What is the source of the sun's energy?
fusion of hydrogen nuclei into helium
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Where were all chemical elements with atoms heavier than helium made?
in stars by nuclear fusion
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What does the red shift suggest?
that distant galaxies are moving away from us. The further away a galaxy is, the faster it is moving away from us. Therefore the universe is expanding
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How do scientists believe the universe was created?
The Big Bang 14 billion years ago
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Why is it hard to predict the future of the universe?
difficulties in measuring the very large distances involved, the mass of the universe and studying the motion of very distant objects
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How do rocks provide evidence for changes in the Earth?
erosion and sedimentation (oldest layers are at the bottom), fossils, craters (erased by erosion), folding (requires huge force), radioactivity of rocks (decreases over time)
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What stops the continents being eroded down to sea level?
mountain formation
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What can the age of the Earth be estimated from?
It must be greater than the age of it's oldest rocks
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What is Wegener's theory of continental drift?
the continents used to fit together but continental drift meant they moved apart
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What is the evidence for continental drift?
continents fitted together like a jigsaw (Pangaea), fossils, mountain ranges and rock patterns matching up
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How does Wegener's theory relate to mountain formation?
when two continents collided they forced each other upwards, forming mountains
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Why were Wegener's ideas rejected at the time?
he wasn't a geologist, evidence was limited, there was the simpler explanation of a bridge connecting the continents, movements of continents not detectable
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What is seafloor spreading?
the convection currents in the mantle (due to heating by the core) force the tectonic plates apart and magma reaches the surface and hardens
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What explains the pattern of magnetisation of sea floor rocks on either side of the oceanic ridges?
periodic reversals of the Earth's magnetic field
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Where does seafloor spreading take place?
constructive plate boundaries, where plates are moving apart
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What causes volcanoes and where do they form?
at destructive plate boundaries, oceanic and continental plates collide and the denser oceanic plate if forced under (subduction). Oceanic plate melts and molten rock rises to form volcanoes.
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What causes mountain ranges and where do they form?
form at colliding plate boundaries and sedimentary rock is forced up by the pressure created in a collision
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Why do earthquakes occur?
at plate boundaries, plates slide past or collide and pressure builds up. Stored energy is released and waves of energy are released from the epicentre
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Why is plate movement crucial to the rock cycle?
old rock is destroyed through subduction. Igneous rock formed when magma reaches the surface. Plate collisions cause rock to fold. Sedimentary rock becomes metamorphic.
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What waves to earthquakes produce?
P and S waves
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What are waves?
regular patterns of disturbance that transfer energy from one point to another without transferring particles of matter
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What can P (longitudinal) waves do?
travel through solids and liquids and liquid region of Earth's outer core
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what can S (transverse) waves do?
travel through solids only
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What travels as longitudinal waves?
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What travels as transverse waves?
light and water ripples
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What happens to each particle in longitudinal waves?
vibrate backwards and forwards about its normal position and in the same plane as direction of wave movement
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What happens to each particle in transverse waves?
vibrate up and down about its normal position and at right angles to direction of wave movement
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What is the frequency of waves (Hertz, Hz)?
number of waves produced each second
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What is the wavelength of waves?
the distance between the corresponding points on two adjacent cycles
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What is the amplitude of a wave?
the distance from the maximum displacement to the undisturbed position
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What is the equation for wave speed?
wave speed (m/s) = frequency (Hz) x wavelength (m)
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What do you need for a constant wave speed?
the wavelength of the wave should be inversely proportional to the frequency
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are planets?


8 large masses that orbit the sun in elliptical orbits

Card 3


What are dwarf planets?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What are moons?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What are asteroids?


Preview of the front of card 5
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Btw, this is P2 not P1


No, this is P1 The Earth in the Universe etc


Is this for OCR Gateway? Mate, this is C2 as well :/


@Hxneul._.Chan your right, its C2, P1 and P2


So which is it? @Gillme @SRB000

Bushra Patel

@AraPhoenix All of them...?


AMAZING!! Even helped me with geography as well! Thank you :)


quite nice

but  i bought that


Useful ish lol

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