Physics (GCSE) - Autumn Term (Yr.11)

what is the composition, charge, penetration, ionisation of alpha radiation
compostion: 2 protons and 2 neutrons, charge: +2, pentration: not penetrating at all, ionisation: most ionising, used in smoke alams but wont affect you
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what is the composition, charge, penetration, ionisation of beta radiation ?
compostion: electron emitted from nucleus when proton turns into neutron and electron, charge: -1, penetration: more penetrating than alpha but not as much as gamma, will penetrate body, ionisation: less likely than alpha
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what is the composition, charge, penetration, ionisation of gamma radiation ?
compostion: high energy, high frequency wave, charge: no charge or mass as its a wave, penetration: most penetraiting, only thick piece of led limits it, ionisation: least ionising as it travels through things, it can ionise cells( stop working)
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whats the plum pudding model and when is it ?
1897, a ball which is positive with negative electrons floating around in it
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what observations were made from the geiger and marsdens gold foil experiment ?
most alpha particles went through gold foil,some alpha particles were slightly deflected by the gold foil, a few alpha particles were bounced back from the gold foil
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what conclusions were drawn after the gold foil experiment ?
that the atom was mostly empty space, there was a concentrated positive mass somewhere in the atom, suggests concentrated mass is miniscule compared to size of atom but contains most of atoms mass.
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what happens during alpha decay ?
where two protons are lost the mass number goes down two and so does the atomic number
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what happens during beta decay ?
where a proton and electron are made from a neutron the atomic number goes up as there is one more proton but mass number stays the same because the proton replaces the lost neutron
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define half life
the time it takes the number of radioactive nuclei in a sample decrease by 50 percent
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what two things can we use to detect radioactivity ?
a geiger counter, a radiation badge that has photographic film
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what is the activity to do with radioactive decay ?
the number of decays per second
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what is the units for decay ?
becquerel, 1 Bq= 1 decay per second
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define irradiation
an object that when it is exposed to radiation, doesnt become radioactive
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how do you prevent radiation getting to an object ?
put sources in lead lined boxes, stand behind barriers, use remote controlled arms when moving radioactive things
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define contamination
radioactive atoms get into or onto a material
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how do you prevent radioactive contamination ?
wear gloves, use tongs when handling the sources and wear protective suits
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what are sources of background radiation ?
radon gas, food, cosmic rays, gamma rays. medical, nuclear
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what is radon dose ?
its measured in sieverts Sv and its a measure of risk of harm to your body due to radiation exposure
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what does a low dose of radiation do to your body compared to a high dose ?
low dose: causes minor damage in cells, mutate cells which means they divide uncontrollably forming tumours, higher dose, kills cells
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whats a medical tracer ?
a machine which produces a detailed image of the area of the body where the radiation has been injected or breathed into the body, the substance being injected must have a short half life to limit damage in the body
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why is cancer caused by radiation ?
because radiation can mutate cells
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what are the two isotopes which undergo fission ?
uranium 235, plotonium 239
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what is fission ?
when the nucleus of an atom splits into two smaller daughter nuclei
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what is the chain reaction when fission occurs ?
that when one nucleus splits the neutrons produced make another nucleus split nd it keeps happenign
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how are neutrons controlled in fission ?
they are controlled by water which carries away heat which slows down neutrons, and metal rods which are raised or lowered depending on how quick you want fission to happen and graphite core slows down neutrons
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what conditions does there have to be for nuclear fission to take place ?
the neutron must be slow for the atom to absorb the neutron, high temperature and pressure.
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whats the pros for nuclear fission ?
no greenhouse gases, cheap to run when built, reduces use of fossil fuels
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what are the cons for nuclear fission ?
risk of uncontrolled chain reaction, expensive to build, produces long lasting radio active decay
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define nuclear fusion
a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei are combined to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons)
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24.09.18
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

what is the composition, charge, penetration, ionisation of beta radiation ?

Back

compostion: electron emitted from nucleus when proton turns into neutron and electron, charge: -1, penetration: more penetrating than alpha but not as much as gamma, will penetrate body, ionisation: less likely than alpha

Card 3

Front

what is the composition, charge, penetration, ionisation of gamma radiation ?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

whats the plum pudding model and when is it ?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what observations were made from the geiger and marsdens gold foil experiment ?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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