Physics Definitions G484

Newton's first law
A body will remain at rest or continue to move with a constant velocity unless acted upon by an external force.
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Newton's second law
Force is proportional to the rate of change of momentum.
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Newton's third law
When a body exerts a force on another, the other body will exert an equal and opposite force on the first body.
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The Newton
The force required to give a mass of 1kg an acceleration of 1ms^-2
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Linear momentum
mass x velocity; momentum is a vector.
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Net force on a body
Its proportional to the rate of change of momentum.
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Impulse
The product of the force acting on a body and the time it is acting; equal to the change in momentum.
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Principle of conservation of momentum
The total momentum is conserved for a closed system, provided there are no external forces.
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Perfectly elastic collision
A collision with no loss in kinetic energy.
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Inelastic collision
A collision where some kinetic energy is lost during the collision.
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Circular motion
Occurs when a net force acts on an object perpendicular to its velocity.
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Gravitational field strength
Force per unit mass.
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Newton's law of gravitation
The gravitational force of attraction between two objects is directly proportional to the product of their masses and is inversely proportional to the square of their separation.
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Geostationary orbit
An orbit around the Earth that has the same period of rotation as the Earth (24hrs) and is in the equatorial plane.
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Period
The time for one complete oscillation/rotation.
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Frequency
The number of oscillations/rotations in one second.
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Angular frequency (ω)
The product of 2π and the frequency.
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Phase difference
The difference between the pattern of vibration of two points/waves where one leads or lags behind the other.
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Simple harmonic motion
The motion of an oscillator where its acceleration is directly proportional to its displacement from its equilibrium position and is directed towards that position.
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Internal energy
The sum of random distribution kinetic and potential energies associated with the molecules of a system.
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Thermal equilibrium
Where there is no net heat flow between objects as regions are of equal temperature.
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Absolute zero
The temperature at which a substance has minimum internal energy, all particle vibration stops.
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Specific heat capacity
The energy required to raise the temperature of 1kg of a substance by 1ºC/K.
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Latent heat of fusion
The energy required to turn a substance from a solid to a liquid at constant temperature.
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Latent heat of vapourisation
The energy required to turn a substance from a liquid to a gas at constant temperature.
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Boyle's law
At constant temperature, the pressure and volume of a gas are inversely proportional.
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Charles' law
At constant pressure, the volume of a gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature.
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The pressure law
At constant volume, the pressure of a gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Force is proportional to the rate of change of momentum.

Back

Newton's second law

Card 3

Front

When a body exerts a force on another, the other body will exert an equal and opposite force on the first body.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The force required to give a mass of 1kg an acceleration of 1ms^-2

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

mass x velocity; momentum is a vector.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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