# physics

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acceleration
the rate of change of velocity, acceleration depends on the mass of the object and the force applied
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amplitude
the maximum displacement from the mean position in a transverse wave. In sound it is the measure of the loudness of the sound.
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attraction
A force, which occurs between two charged objects if they have dissimilar charges, for example 'positive and negative'
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Balanced In electricity
when there is an equal number of positive and negative charges present on an object.
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Balanced
When two things for example forces are equal
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Big Bang
The accepted theory of how the Universe began, which states that all matter was created in an explosion from a single point in space
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Biofuel
Energy sources derived from recently living organic matter for example biodiesel is made from vegetable oils and animal fats and can be used in some cars. Bioethanol is produced from the fermentation of some crops for example corn or sugar cane.
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Charges
These are either positive or negative; they exert forces on one another.
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Chemical
Form of energy, things which release energy as a result of a chemical reaction, for example burning of a fuel, respiration of food in the body, or the chemicals in a battery.
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Compression
Solid objects can be compressed (squashed) if forces are applied to them
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Condensation
When a vapour turns to a liquid on cooling, heat is given out during this change.
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Conduction
When heat energy is moved because the vibrating particles in a solid conductor pass it on, metals are the best conductors.
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Convection
When heat energy is moved because of the movement of more energetic particles in liquids and gases.
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Diffracted
This word describes the circular bending of waves when they pass through a small gap.
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Doppler effect
This phenomenon is the observed change in wavelength and frequency of waves produced from a moving object. The Doppler effect is observed when an ambulance passes and overtakes you.
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Echoes
These are reflections of sound waves.
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Efficiency
When energy is transferred only part of it may be usefully transferred, the rest is ‘wasted’.
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Efficiency Equation
useful energy out/total energy in (x100%) Efficiency = useful power out/total power in (x100%)
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Electrical Energy
possessed by electrical charge as it moves around a circuit
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Electrical Power
This is the amount of electrical energy an appliance transfers. It depends on how long the appliance is switched on and its power rating. P is power and is measure in units called kilowatts, kW.
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Evaporation
The loss of the most energetic particles from the surface of a liquid, it depends on the surface area of the water, temperature, and humidity and movement of the surrounding air.
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Fossil fuel
Chemical energy sources derived from the remains of ancient biomass, wood turns into coal, and plankton turns into natural gas and crude oil. The fuels are burnt to heat water or air.
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Frequency
The number of waves per second measured in a unit called hertz (HZ). One hertz means one wave in one second.
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Friction
A type of force, which particularly effects motion, for example air resistance on a falling parachute.
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A radioactive emission with high penetrating power which can be blocked by concrete or lead, it is also a part of the electromagnetic spectrum.
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Geothermal
An energy source which uses the heat energy from hot rocks which are close to the surface of the Earth. The energy can be utilized to heat water and generate electricity.
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Gravitational energy
Energy that an object possesses because it is raised above the ground, for example the gravitational energy of the raised water in a hydro-electric dam
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Gravitational-potential energy
The energy an object possesses because of its position.
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Gravity
The force of attraction between two objects.
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Hertz
(Hz) The unit of frequency.
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

amplitude

#### Back

the maximum displacement from the mean position in a transverse wave. In sound it is the measure of the loudness of the sound.

attraction

### Card 4

#### Front

Balanced In electricity

Balanced