Name some scalar quantities
Mass, speed, energy, volume, distance, temperature
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Name some vector quantities
Displacement, velocity, acceleration, momentum, force
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What is a scalar quantity?
A quantity that has only magnitude
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What is a vector quantity?
A quantity that has both a magnitude and a direction
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What is a force?
A push or pull in a particular direction
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In what ways can forces affect motion?
Start moving, move faster, move slower, stop moving, change direction, change shape
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What is thrust?
This can be any driving force, it may be a push or pull, but it could be an engine which forces an object forward.
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What is lift?
This is the force required to raise an object through a fluid
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What is air resistance?
This is a force which acts in the air, it can slow objects down when they are moving against it. Or if harnessed could be used to move an object along.
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What is friction?
This force acts on objects when they are in contact with a surface, such as the ground. It can be reduced by ensuring both surfaces are smooth.
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What is gravity?
This force affects every object on Earth. It is a force which pulls everything to the centre of the earth.
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What is upthrust?
This is an upward force which acts in water, it acts on a object against gravity, and is why certain objects float.
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Name some contact forces
Fictional force, tension force, normal force, air resistance force, applied force, spring force
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Name some non-contact forces
Gravitational force, electrical force, magnetic force
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What are forces measured in?
Newtons (N)
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What is the gravitational field strength measured in?
Newtons per kilogram (N/kg)
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What is the calculation for weight?
Weight=mass x gravitational field strength
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What is mass?
A measure of the amount of material an object is made of, it is measured in kilograms (kg)
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What is weight?
The force of gravity on an object, it is measured in newtons (N)
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How is a contact force produced?
When two objects are touching eachother
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How is a non-contact fore produced?
For this one the objects do not have to touch eachother
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What is work done?
Is energy transferred
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What is the formula for work done?
Work = force x distance
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What is work done measured in?
Joules (J)
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How do you find the change of gravitational potential energy?
Change of gravitational potential energy (J) = mass x gravitational field strength x change of height
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What does the turning effect of a force depend on?
The distance from the pivot
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What is a moment?
Moment (M) = force x perpedicular distance from pivot
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How can you increase the size of a moment?
Increase the size of the force or Increase the distance from the pivot
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What is pressure?
The force per unit area
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What is the formula for pressure?
Pressure = force / area
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What unit is pressure measured in?
Pascal (Pa)
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What factors affect pressure in a fluid?
The depth the pressure is measured at, the density of the fluid, the gravitational field strength
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What is pressure in a fluid caused by?
The particles in the fluid
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What is the formula for finding pressure in a fluid?
Pressure = density x gravity x height
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What affects atmospheric pressure?
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What is the centre of mass?
The centre of mass of an object is that point at which its mass may be thought to be concentrated
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What is equilibrium?
A state in which opposing forces or influences are balanced
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What is the formula for speed?
Speed = distance / time
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What is the formula for acceleration?
Acceleration = velocity (1) - velocity (2) / time (1) - time (2)
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What is acceleration measured in?
metres per second squared (m/s2)
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What is acceleration?
The rate of change in speed (or velocity), measured in m/s2. Acceleration=change of velocity/time taken
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What is deceleration?
Slowing down or negative acceleration
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What is displacement?
Quantity describing the distance from the start of the journey to the end in a straight line with a described direction
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What is magnitude?
The magnitude tells us the size of the vector
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What is momentum?
A quantity relating to a moving object that is calculated by multiplying its mass by its velocity
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What does stationary mean?
Not moving
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What is velocity?
The speed of an object in a particular direction
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What is terminal velocity?
the constant speed that a freely falling object eventually reaches when the resistance of the medium through which it is falling prevents further acceleration.
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What factors affect your reaction time?
Intoxication, tired/illness, distraction, emotion
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What factors affect your braking distance?
Road surface (baldness), tyre condition (friction), weather, speed, mass
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What is the thinking distance?
the distance travelled where the driver is THINKING about stopping
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What is the braking distance?
the distance travelled AFTER the brake has been applied.
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If two forces act on an object along the same line, the resultant force is:
1. their sum if the forces act in the same direction. 2. their difference if the forces act in opposite directions
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What is the limit of proportionality?
The limit for Hooke's law applied to the extension of a stretched spring
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What is Hooke's Law written as an equation?
Force applied (N) = spring constant (N/m) x extension (m)
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What is the spring constant?
The spring constant is different for different objects and materials. It is found by carrying out an experiment. For example, the unloaded length of a spring is measured. Different numbers of slotted masses are added to the spring and its new length
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What is the formula for momentum?
Momentum (kg m/s) = mass x velocity (m/s)
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Is momentum conserved?
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What is elastic deformation?
A change in shape of a material at low stress that is recoverable after the stress is removed.
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What is a linear relation?
A relation between two variables which creates a straight line when graphed
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What is different about non-linear relations?
They do not have a constant slope
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Card 2


Name some vector quantities


Displacement, velocity, acceleration, momentum, force

Card 3


What is a scalar quantity?


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Card 4


What is a vector quantity?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is a force?


Preview of the front of card 5
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