# Physics (1.1-1.5)

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- Created by: Dan Tran
- Created on: 13-12-17 13:55

QUANTITY

A number x a unit (in S.I)

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SCALAR

A quantity having magnitude

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VECTOR

A quantity having magnitude & direction

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RESOLVING A VECTOR INTO COMPONENTS IN PARTICULAR DIRECTIONS

A vector having same effect as two vectors acting together

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DENSITY

Mass per unit volume

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MOMENT ABOUT A POINT

Force x perpendicular distance from the point to the line of the action of the force

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PRINCIPLES OF MOMENTS

For a system to be in equilibrium, the total anti clockwise moments = total clockwise moments

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CENTRE OF GRAVITY

The point within the body where the entire weight can be considered to act

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DISPLACEMENT

The straight line distance travelled with direction

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MEAN SPEED

Distance per unit time

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MEAN VELOCITY

Displacement per unit time

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INSTANTANEOUS SPEED

Rate of change of distance

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INSTANTANEOUS VELOCITY

Rate of change of displacement

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ACCELERATION

Rate of change of velocity

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TERMINAL VELOCITY

Maximum and constant velocity when the resistances are equal and opposite to the accelerating force.

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FORCE

A push or a pull acted by an external body

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NEWTON'S 3RD LAW

If A apply a force on B, B apply an equal and opposite force on A

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TOTAL F=ma

Mass x acceleration = the vector sum of forces acting on the body a.k.a Resultant force

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MOMENTUM

Mass x velocity

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NEWTON'S 2ND LAW

Rate of change of momentum = Sum of forces acting on a body & takes place in the direction of that force

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PRINCIPLES OF CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM

In an isolated system, the initial total momentum before a collision = the final total momentum after the collision

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ELASTIC COLLISION

A collision where there's no change in kinetic energy

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INELASTIC COLLISION

A collision where kinetic energy is lost`

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WORK

Force x distance having same direction of the force

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PRINCIPLES OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

Energy can't be created or destroyed, it can only be transferred from 1 form to another.

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POTENTIAL ENERGY

An energy possessed by an object by virtue its position

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KINETIC ENERGY

An energy possessed by an object by virtue its motion

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ELASTIC POTENTIAL ENERGY

An energy possessed by an object when it has been deformed due to forces acting on it

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ENERGY

Work done

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POWER

Energy or work done per unit time

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HOOKE'S LAW

Force acting on a spring is directly proportional to its extension from its natural length, provided the extension isn't too great

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SPRING CONSTANT

Force per unit extension

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TENSILE STRESS

Force per unit cross sectional area

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TENSILE STRAIN

Extension per unit original length

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YOUNG'S MODULUS

Stress/strain

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CRYSTAL

Solid in which atoms are arranged in a regular array. There's a long range order within crystal structures

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CRYSTALINE SOLID

Solid consisting of a crystal

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AMORPHOUS SOLID

Atoms arranged randomly

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POLYMERIC SOLID

Made up of chain-like molecules

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DUCTILE MATERIAL

A material that can be drawn out into a wire. This implies that plastic strain occurs under enough stress

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ELASTIC STRAIN

The strain disappearing when the tension is removed and the specimen returns to its original length and shape

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PLASTIC/INELASTIC STRAIN

The strain decreasing slightly when the tension is removed. In a metal, it arises from the movement of dislocation within the crystal structures

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ELASTIC LIMIT

The point beyond which the material becomes permanently stretched so that the material does not return to its original length when the force is removed.

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DISLOCATION IN CRYSTALS

Certain faults in crystals which reduce the stress needed for planes of atoms to slide

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EDGE DISLOCATION

The edge of an intrusive, incomplete plane of atoms

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GRAIN BOUDARIES

The boundaries between crystals (grains) in a polycrystalline structures

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NECKING (DUCTILES FRACTURE)

The characteristics fracture process in a ductile material. The fracture of a rod or wire is preceded by local thinning which increases the stress

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BRITTLE MATERIAL

Material with no region of plastic flow, and fails by brittle fracture under tension

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BRITTLE FRACTURE

The fracture under tension brittle materials by means of crack propagation

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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

A quantity having magnitude

#### Back

SCALAR

### Card 3

#### Front

A quantity having magnitude & direction

#### Back

### Card 4

#### Front

A vector having same effect as two vectors acting together

#### Back

### Card 5

#### Front

Mass per unit volume

#### Back

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