Physics 1

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  • Created by: pheegrace
  • Created on: 01-02-16 12:45
What is Radiation?
Emitted by solid, liquids and gases. All objects continually absorb/emit.
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What materials are better at absorbing and emitting radiation?
Dark, Matt
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What materials are better at reflecting radiation?
Light, Shiny
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What is Conduction?
Vibrating particle pass on their extra kinetic energy. Mainly solids. Metals conduct well due to free electrons.
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What is Convection?
Convection Currents = Heated, less dense air rises>Warm air displaces cool air>Cool, denser air falls>Cool air flows to fill gap left by rising, heated air. Not in solids!
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What increases rate of evaporation?
Higher temp(more energy to escape), Low density(force between particles weak), Larger SA(more particles near surface), Greater airflow(air above liquid replaced quicker)
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What increases rate of condensation?
Low temp(particles slow and clump), Low temp of surface ga touches, High density(strong force so clump), Less airflow(concentration of gas in air is higher)
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What is Specific Heat Capacity?
The enrgy needed to raise the temperature of a 1kg substance by 1 degree in J/KgC
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What can energy be?
Stored, Transferred or Dissipated but NEVER Created or Destroyed
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When is energy useful?
When it can be converted from one form to another.
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What are U-Values?
Shows how fast heat can transfer through a material. Heat transfers faster with a high U-value.
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How do you calculate the cost of electricity?
No. of units X Price per unit ...... No. of units used = power x time
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What methods are used to increase home efficiency?
Thick curtains(decrease conduction&radiation), Draught proofing(decrease convection), Loft insulation(decrease conduction&radiation), Cavity wall insulation(decrease convection&radiation), Hot water tank jacket(decrease conducion&radiation)
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How do you calculate payback time?
Initial cost / Annual saving
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What is a longitudinal wave?
Parallel vibrations. Rarefraction and Compression. |||||||
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What is a transverse wave?
90 degree vibrations. ~~~~
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What is reflection?
Light bounces off an object to our eyes to allow us to see things. Angle of incidence=Angle of reflection
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What is diffraction?
Waves spread out when go through gap or past obstacle. Gap wider that wavelength=little difract. Gap bit wider than w.l=diffract at edges. Gap same as w.l=max diffract.
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What is refraction?
When a wave crosses a boundary and changes direction.
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What is frequency?
The number of waves per second (Hz)
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What are sound waves?
Longitudinal, high frequency, high pitch, short wavelength, can't travel in space, caused by vibrating objects, reflect(echo) and refract and big amplitude=loud.
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What are infrared waves?(EM Waves)
Used in wireless remotes which emit different wave patterns for different commands and optical fibres(phoneline)
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What are visible light waves?(EM Waves)
Used in cameras and photography
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What are microwaves?(EM Waves)
Used in satellites and mobile phones. Some w.l of waves absorbed by and heat water however if happens in cells you will cook so will damage health but no evidence.
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What are radiowaves?(EM Waves)
Long wave ones = diffract around earth/hills making it possible to recieve radiowaves even if trasmitter isnt in line. Short waves = TV & FM radiowaves must be in direct sight of transmitter, reflected on ionsphere
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What are fossil fuels?
Coal, Oil, Natural Gas. Non-renewable. Produce CO2 which increases greenhouse effect and global warming. Burning coal/oil = sulfur dioxide(acid rain). Coal mining = landscape mess. Oil spill = Environmental.
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What are non-renewable energy sources?
Fossil fuels and nuclear fuels. Provide most our energy. Damage environment. All run out one day. Nuclear waste = dangerous. Nuclear = Major catastrophe.
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What is solar energy?
Renewable, energy from sun, no pollution, very reliable in sunny countries, small scale(house), initial cost is high but after is free
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What is hydroelectric energy?
Rain turns turbines, dams, reliable, no pollution, loss of habitat, small scale remote areas, unsightly, initial cost high no fuel so min. running costs
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What is tidal energy?
Big dams across rivers with turbines, tide drives turbines, source of energy = gravity of Sun & moon, no pollution, prevent boats, spoil view, alter habitat, reliable, initial cost quite high no fuel cost and min. running costs.
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What is geothermal energy?
Only possible in volcanic areas(not many suitable areas), slow decay of radioactive elements produces heat, hot steam and water rise from earth to drive generator, free energy, high cost to build compared to energy out
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What are biofuels?
Biofuel>Boiler>Turbine>Generator. Used in some cars. From alive organisms(faeces) or dead organic matter.
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What is wave energy?
Useful on small islands, no pollution, spoil views, boat hazzard, unreliable, initial high cost no fuel min. run cost
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What is wind energy?
Wind turbines, very noisy, spoil view, no pollution, high intial cost no fuel cost min. run cost, no wind no power
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What is the Big Bang Theory?
all matter and energy was compressed into very small space then exploded and started expanding, about 14 billion years ago, discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation was strong evidence
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What is the Doppler Effect?
The frequency of a source moving towards you is higher with a short wavelength. The opposite happens to a source moving away. This haappens to longitudinal & transverse waves.
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What is Red-Shift?
RS suggests galaxies are quickly moving away from us. More distant, greater rs, move away faster. Evidence that universe is expanding.
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What materials are better at absorbing and emitting radiation?


Dark, Matt

Card 3


What materials are better at reflecting radiation?


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Card 4


What is Conduction?


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Card 5


What is Convection?


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