Physical&Costal processes key terms

Relief
The way the landscape changes in Height
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How has the UK's landscape been shaped?
By Glaciation & Rivers
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Highest peak UK
Ben Nevis, Grampian Mountains, Scotland
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Highest Peak England
Scarfell Pike, Lake District
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Highest Peak Wales
Snowdon, Cambrian Mountains
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Lowest UK point
The Fens, East Anglia
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Longest River
River Severn
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Fetch
Distance wind travels over surface of water
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Swash
Water that runs up the beach after the wave breaks
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Backwash
Water runs down to sea after wave breaks
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Constructive Wave
Low wave with strong swash deposits sediment creating gently sloping beach
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Destructive Wave
High wave with strong Backwash removes sediment creating a steep beach
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Erosion
Mechanical wearing away of rocks (along the coast)
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Weathering
Breakdown of rocks in situ (one place)
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Types of Weathering
Mechanical (physical), Chemical and Biological
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Mechanical weathering (definition + example)
Disintegration of rock - Freeze-Thaw
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Chemical weathering (definition + example)
Caused by chemical changes - Carbonation
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Biological weathering (definition + example)
Caused by the Flora and fauna - plants growing in cracks/ animals burrowing into weak rocks
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Mass movement
downward movement of weathered rock due to gravity
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Rockfall
Bits of rock break away due to freeze thaw
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Mud flow
saturated soil and weak rocks flow downhill
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landslide
blocks of rocks slide downhill
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Rotational slip
Saturated soil slumps down on a curved surface
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Type of wave responsible for erosion
Destructive Waves
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Hydraulic Action
Force of wave traps air which gets forced into cracks in rock and over time breaks up rock
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Abrasion
Rocks grind over rock platform, like sandpaper, become smooth
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Attrition
Fragment of rocks carried by the sea knock against each other and become smaller and rounder
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solution
Sea water dissolves certain types of Rocks (Chalk, Limestone)
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corrasion
Rock fragments carried by the sea scrape away at the cliff
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Deposition Happens when
water slows down and waves loose energy
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What is formed because of deposition
Beaches due to sediment deposition and Mudflats and salt marshes in sheltered areas behind spits.
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name ways sediment is transported
Solution, Suspension, Traction and Saltation.
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Solution
Dissolved chemicals in water (from Chalk/Limestone)
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Suspension
Particle are suspended/carried in the water
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Traction
lage pebbles rolled along the seabed
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Saltation
Bouncing of particles at the bottom of sea as they're too heavy o be suspended.
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Prevailing wind
The usual direction of wind
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Longshore drift
Process of sediment being transported along the coast in a zig-zag movement due to the angle of prevailing wind
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

By Glaciation & Rivers

Back

How has the UK's landscape been shaped?

Card 3

Front

Ben Nevis, Grampian Mountains, Scotland

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Scarfell Pike, Lake District

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Snowdon, Cambrian Mountains

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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