What causes waves?
When wind blowing over the sea/ocean. The wind creates ripples and these then become waves over a long fetch
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What is fetch?
The stretch of ocean that the wind blows over to start and move the wave
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Why do waves break when they reach the coast?
Waves have a circular orbit and when they move through shallow water the bottom of the orbit is scraped along the seabed. The wave then falls forward because the circular motion has stopped.
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What is swash?
The movement of water and sediment of water up a beach - the "forward" motion of a wave
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What is longshore drift?
When waves approach the coast at an angle determined by the direction of the prevailing wind and then move back down vertically due to gravity. As a result, sediment is moved along the beach
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What are the features of constructive waves?
Strong swash, weak backwash, infrequent, smaller height
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What are the features of destructive waves?
Weak swash, strong backwash, for frequent and taller
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Which type of wave causes a steep beach gradient?
Constructive because it causes a high sediment build up
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What is wave refraction?
When the energy waves is dissipated by the changing shape of the coastline and geomorphology
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What are tides?
The changing places where sediment is deposited due to the changing gravitational pull from the moon
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The wearing away of land with moving agents such as the sea
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What is hydraulic action?
The sheer force of the water gets inside small cracks and breaks them up into smaller pieces
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What is corrasion?
When slightly acidic seawater reacts with rocks and slowly dissolves them
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What is abrasion?
When rocks and stones are bashed against the rocks to break them up, having a sandpapering effect
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What is attrition?
When rocks carried in water are bashed into each other and broken down
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What is traction?
When rocks are rolled along the seabed
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What is saltation?
When smaller stones are bounced along the bed in a hopping motion
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What is suspension?
When fine material is carried in the actual water mass
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What is solution transportation?
When rocks, such as limestone, are dissolved in the water and carried along
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What is weathering?
When rocks are broken down by elements of the weather, without moving
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What is biological weathering?
When rocks are broken down by roots of a plant or by plants growing through them
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What is chemical weathering?
The chemical alteration of the structure of rocks. For example, excess SO2 in the air causes acid rain which will break down rocks
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What is physical weathering?
When rocks are broken down by physical means. E.g. freeze-thaw
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How are caves formed?
When a headland or cliff is eroded by hydraulic action or abrasion and a fault is formed. Erosion continues until the fault is huge and creates a cave
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How are arches formed?
When the back of a cave is eroded, leaving a completely open arch
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How are stacks formed?
The top part of a stack will collapse because it has been left poorly supported for an extended period of time. This leaves a vertical column of rock called a stack
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How are stumps formed?
The base of the stack is attacked by weathering and leaves a stump when it collapses
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Give an example of a well known stack
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How are coves formed?
Water finds weaknesses in the strong rock running horizontal to the waves (concordant) and erodes the softer rock behind. This leaves a circular inlet that is filled with calmer water called a cove
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Are headlands and bays formed at concordant or discordant coastlines?
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How are headlands and bays formed?
The bands of alternating hard and soft rock, perpendicular to the sea are eroded. The hard rock is not as eroded as the softer rock so it is left sticking out (headlands). The soft rock continues to be eroded and so dips inwards and creates a bay.
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Why is there lots of deposition in a bay?
The headlands dissipate the energy of the waves as they move into the bay at an angle (due to prevailing winds) so they have less energy. This means they deposit their sediment in the bay and a beach is formed in the bay
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Where does the sediment for the beach in a bay come from?
The soft rock that was previsouly eroded is eroded again by processes such as attrition into smaller parts and deposited in the bay
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What is a discordant coastline?
When bands of alternating hard and soft rock are positioned vertically towards the sea
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What is a cliff?
A vertical, or near vertical rock face at the coast
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How is a wavecut platform made?
Destructive waves attack the cliff between the high and low watermarks so a wavecut notch is made. Then the top part becomes unsupported and falls. This leaves a smooth slope aka wavecut platform. This causes cliff retreat
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What kind of wave forms a shallowly sloping beach? Why?
Destructive, they carry lots of sediment away so there isn't much of a build up
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What and where is Spurn Head?
A spit in Hull
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How are spits formed?
Sediment is carried in long shore drift and when there is a break in the coastline, sediment is deposited because of a decrease in velocity and a counter-current. This builds up and a landform called a spit is formed
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Why is there often a hook on the end of a spit?
The direction of the prevailing wind pushes it inland or changes direction entirely
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What forms behind a spit?
A salt marsh that can be a habitat for many wetland animals
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What is a bar?
A spit that rejoins land at the other side
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What is behind a bar?
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Why is sea level rising?
Global warming warming is causing ice caps to melt so the sea gets more water and levels rise. Thermal expansion - water takes up more room when heated
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Why would sea levels fall?
Temperatures drop and water gets frozen in ice caps so there is less in the sea
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What is mass movement?
The downhill movement of material under the influence of gravity
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What process moves sand down a beach?
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Which waves tend to break more gently, constructive or destructive?
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What happens as a result of a wavecut platform being made?
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How do cliffs retreat?
A wavecut notch is made between high and low watermarks and then the overhanging rock becomes unsupported and collapses. A wavecut platform is also made
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Give 2 effects of sea level rise
Loss of agricultural land and storm surges
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Give 3 hard engineering strategies used to protect the coast
Rock armour, groynes and recurved sea wall
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Give 3 examples of soft engineering strategies used to protect the coastline
Beach nourishment, dune regeneration, managed retreat, marsh creation
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What is hard engineering?
The traditional approach to protecting the coast that involves man made structures
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What is soft engineering?
Working with nature to protect the coastline, often without manmade structures
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Give 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage of using a sea wall
A - Protects cliffs and buildings. D - Expensive
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Give 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage of using groynes
A - Stops longshore drift moving sand. D - Exposes other areas of the coast
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Give 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage of using rock armour
A - Rocks absorb energy and keep sediment. D - Expensive and usually have to be imported
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Give 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage of using beach nourishment
A - Sand reduces energy and tourism is maintained. D - Expensive
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Give 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage of using managed retreat
A - People and activities move inland. D - unpopular among local residents
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Give 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage of using dune regeneration
A - Relatively cheap. D - People have to stay out of newly planted areas
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Give 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage of using marsh creation
A - Creates a habitat for wildlife. D - Farmland destroyed so farmers must be compensated
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Give 3 factors effecting cliff collapse
Heavy rain, building on the cliff (weight), weathering, coastal erosion, soft rock, strong winds over a long fetch means big waves
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Give 3 impacts of cliff collapse
Habitats destroyed, increased deposition further along the coast, access may be lost (roads broken etc), houses may be damaged, might fall on someone below, hard to insure things near the edge of a cliff
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What case study would you use for managing the coast?
Mappleton, Holderness Coast, East Yorkshire
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What is the rate of erosion in Mappleton (Holderness)?
1.8m a year
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Give 2 reasons for the rapid erosion
Soft boulder clay is prone to slumping, exposed to strong waves, natural protection form the nearby beach has been removed by groynes
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What impact on people has the erosion at Holderness had on people?
House prices have drastically fallen
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Which management strategies are in place at Holderness?
2 rock groynes and rock armour
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What benefit does the management strategies in place at Holderness have for people?
Protects 100 people and the B1242 road along the coast
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What case study would you use for a coastal habitat?
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What are the 3 sections of a salt marsh?
Lower marsh, upper marsh and uplands
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What grows in the lower marsh?
Cord grass which has long roots
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What grows in upper marsh?
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What grows in the uplands?
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What 2 things reduce when you move from low marsh to uplands?
Salinity, water exposure
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What thing increases as you move from low marsh to uplands?
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Where is Keyhaven?
Hampshire, on the south coast of England
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What are pioneer species?
Hardy species (usually from plantae) that first colonise a previously disrupted area to start ecological succession
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What castle is on the end of the spit at Keyhaven?
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What things have been done at Keyhaven to protect the salt marshes from erosion?
300,000m^3 of sediment added. 500m of rock armour was added along the exposed coast
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How is biodiveristy monitored in Keyhaven?
It's an SSSI so scientists are always there
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How do oceanic and continental crusts differ?
Oceanic crust is denser and thinner. Continental crust is thicker and less dense.
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What type of boundary is Iceland on?
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What state is earth's mantle in?
A viscous liquid
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Why do plates move?
The heat from the core creates circular convection currents in the mantle which drag the plates along in the direction of convection.
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What is a destructive plate margin?
When two plates move towards each other. The thinner, denser oceanic crust is subducted under the lighter continental crust
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Name 3 things that can be made at a destructive plate boundary
COMPOSITE volcanoes, fold mountains and ocean trenches
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What is a constructive plate boundary?
When two plates move apart and magma from the mantle moves upwards to fill the gap where it solidifies
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Name 2 things that can be found at a constructive plate margin
SHIELD volcanoes and volcanic islands
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Give an example of a volcanic island
Iceland/any of the Maldives
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What is a conservative plate boundary?
When two plates slide against each other. They can slide at different speed or in different directions
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What can happen at a conservative plate boundary?
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Why do eathquakes happen?
Tectonic plates sliding past each other can get stuck. After a while, energy builds up and they can move again but lots of energy is released which causes the ground to move
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What is an anticline?
The peak of a fold mountain
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What is a syncline?
The depression between two fold mountains
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What is a geosyncline?
Huge depressions under the sea
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How are fold mountains formed?
Sediment is deposited in a geosyncline and compressed into rock over thousands of years. The plates then moves towards each other at the destructive margin, pushing the rock upwards to form anticlines and synclines (fold mountains)
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How is an ocean trench formed?
The subducting oceanic crust makes a huge depression in the seabed which water fills. This deep area is called an ocean trench
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What case study would you use for uses of fold mountains?
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Where are the Himalayas?
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What are the dangers of the Himalayas?
Landslides, earthquakes and avalanches
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What are the good points of the Himalayas?
Tourism brings money (government charge a fee for climbing Everest). Lots of space to farm. Great source of hydroelectric power
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What are the bad points of tourism in the Himalayas?
Litter and pollution
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What are the bad points about farming in the Himalayas?
The land is steep so possibility of landslide and losing it all
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What is a disadvantage of HEP?
Loss of habitat in low lying areas
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Give 4 features of a shield volcano
Shorter, shallow gradient, runny lava, less explosive, made of solidified lava ONLY
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Give 4 features of a composite (strato) volcano
Taller, steep gradient, layers of lava and ash, viscous lava, violent eruptions, irregular eruptions
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What are supervolcanoes?
A volcano capable of erupting 1000 times bigger than a normal volcano.
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What is a calderra?
A huge depression left in the land after the land covering the magma chamber collapses after a supervolcano eruption
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What case study would you use for supervolcanoes?
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On the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI), where are supervolcanoes?
8. The scale goes from 1-8.
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What radius does the danger zone surrounding Yellowstone have?
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What are the effects of Yellowstone errupting?
A volcanic winter (10-20C drop in global temp) = failed grops bc no light for photosynthesis = nothing to sell = no money = downfall of economy. Pyrcolastic flows would decimate the surrounding 100 miles
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What is a pyroclastic flow?
A hot, fast moving current of ash and rock moving up to 500mph as a result of a volcanic eruption
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What case study would you use for a normal volcanic eruption?
Soufriere Hills, Montserrat in the Caribbean
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When did the main eruption happen in Montserrat?
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Give 2 primary effects of the Montserrat explosion
19 people killed, 2/3 of homes destroyed, 5000 people evacuated
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Give 2 secondary effects of the Montserrat explosion
Tourist industry disrupted, high cost of rebuilding. There is some tourism from people interested in volcanoes
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Give 2 immediate responses to the Soufriere Hills explosion in June 1997
Evacuation to the north of island/nearby Antigua. Emergency help from NGOs
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Give 2 long-term responses to the Soufriere Hills explosion in June 1997
Evacuees offered £2500 per person to relocate somewhere else. Volcano observatory built,. Attempt to reattract tourists.
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What type of plate boundary do earthquakes happen at?
All of them. All because of grinding
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What are earthquakes?
Vibrations in the earth's crust that cause shaking at the surface
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What is the focus of an earthquake?
The point inside of earth's crust where the earthquake starts
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What is the epicenter of an earthquake?
The point ON earth's crust which is directly above the focus
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Give 2 scales earthquakes can be measured on
Mercalli Scale and Richter Scale
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Which scale uses roman numerals?
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Which scale is logarithmic?
Richter. It increases 10 fold between each number. For example a 2 is 10 times bigger than a 1.
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What 3 things have an effect on how much damage a strong earthquake does?
Building design, focus depth and population density
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What case study would you use for comparing earthquakes in LEDCs and MEDCs?
Haiti and Chile
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What number did the Haiti earthquake get on the Richter Scale?
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Was the depth of Haiti's earthquake relatively deep or shallow?
Shallow so the effects were worse
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What year did the Haiti earthquake happen?
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How many people died as a result of the Haiti earthquake?
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Give 2 primary effects of the earthquake in Haiti
Port was damaged. Rubble blocked roads and trainlines. 280,000 buildings collapsed.
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Give 2 primary responses of the Haiti quake
Port-au-Prince morgues were completely overloaded. Unorganised. Delayed aid lead to sporadic looting
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Give 2 long term responses to the Haiti quake in 2011
The EU gave $330 million. 1 million people remained displaced a year after because building and aid was slow. Dom Rep accepted some refugees.
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What are tsunamis?
Huge movements of water at sea as a secondary effect of an earthquake
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What case study would you use for tsunamis?
Boxing Day 2004, south eastern Asia
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How many people died in the Indian Ocean tsunami?
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How many people were displaced as a result of the Indian Ocean tsunami?
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What damage did the Indian Ocean tsunami do to tourism?
People couldn't visit so tourism dropped. The countries there are poor so they were reliant on tourism, especially Thailand.
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Which country was hit by the tsunami in the Indian Ocean first?
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How can we monitor an earthquake?
A seismic sensor records the amplitude of seismic P and S waves produced
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How can we predict a volcanic eruption?
Changes in gaseous emission (e.g. for SO2 released). Seismic sensors to see if earthquakes have happened. Relief sensors to see if gradient on a volcano changes
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Why didn't the message reach countries that would be effected by the tsunami in the Indian Ocean in time?
The observatory was in Hawaii. They noticed that there was an earthquake somewhere near Australia but was no problem. This was the revised and frantic phone calls were made. There were no sensors or buoys in the Indian Ocean (there are now)
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What is the shape of a river valley in the upper course?
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What type of erosion is dominant in the upper course of a river?
Vertical by abrasion to reach base level
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What is traction?
The rolling of boulders along the riverbed
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Overall, what happens to the width and depth of a river channel as you move downstream?
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What is a drainage basin?
The area of land drained by a river and its tributaries
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What separates drainage basins?
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In which course does the most deposition happen?
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In which course of the river is suspension the main transport type?
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Name 2 features of the middle course
Meanders, oxbow lakes,
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Give 3 features of the upper course
Waterfalls, rapids and gorges
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Give 3 features of the lower course
Leveés, floodplains, deltas, estuaries
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What is groundwater flow?
When water moves throw deeper layers of soil after percolation in the water table
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What is the water table?
The level below ground which the rock is saturated with water
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Give 2 examples of storage in the drainage basin cycle
Interception, surface storage, groundwater, soil moisture
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Give 2 examples of flows in the drainage basin cycle, towards a river channel
Infiltration, percolation, groundwater flow, surface runoff
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Give 2 outputs from the drainage basin system
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Give 1 input into the drainage basin system
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What are tributaries?
Smaller streams flowing into the river
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What are distributaries?
Smaller streams flowing away from the river
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What is at the bottom of a waterfall?
A plunge pool
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What is a gorge?
Over time, the process of undercutting and collapse is repeated until the waterfall retreats, leaving a steep sided gorge
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How do waterfalls form?
Hard rock changes to soft rock slightly further down.It is more easily eroded so it goes down and the hard rock stays up. The soft rock is undercut and the hard rock collapses. This process repeats.
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What is undercutting?
When erosion creates an overhang by only eroded the bottom part of a rock face
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In which part of a meander does the discharge move with the highest velocity?
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Why does a slip off slope form on the inside of a meander?
There is less velocity there so less energy and the river deposits its load
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What is an oxbow lake?
When the bend of a meander is cut off from the main channel because of the high velocity (hydraulic action) against the first bend. The neck narrows.
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What are levées?
Natural embankments that form in times of flood. Large sediment is deposited closer to the river
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Why is smaller sediment deposited further away from the river channel in times of flood?
Because they are lighter and require less energy to move so are deposited last and furthest away
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What is alluvium?
Fine sediment transported by the river. AKA silt
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How do floodplains form?
When in times of flood, the river slightly erodes the next highest point (the new bank) but material is deposited, leaving smooth floodplains
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What is meander migration?
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Why does discharge increase downstream?
Because more water can fit in the bigger channel and more tributaries have given water
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What is formed on the outside of a meander?
A river cliff
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What is meander migration?
The movement of meander's position downstream, within the floodplain because of erosion on the outside of all the meanders
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On a hydrograph, what is lag time?
The time between peak rainstorm and peak discharge levels in the river
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What does the bar graph on a hydrograph show?
Rainfall in mm
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What does the line on a hydrograph show?
River discharge levels
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What thing effects lag time on a hydrograph?
Gradient of the land in the drainage basin
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What factors affect flooding in the UK?
Previous weather conditions (e.g. antecedent rainfall). Precipiation. Rock type (permeability). Temperature. Land uses such as afforestation and roads
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What case study would you use for a flood in an MEDC?
Boscastle, Cornwall. 2004
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What caused the Boscastle flood of 2004?
60mm (a month) of rain fell in 2 hours. Ground was already saturated. High surface runoff bc steep drainage basin sides made of impermeable slate. Lots of water at confluence of Valency and Jordan. Debris dams worsened effects
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What effects did the flood of Boscastle in 2004 have?
Income from tourism lost. High cost to insurance companies (1000 cars/homes lost). No lives were lost because of swift evacuation. Cost of repair: £100 million
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What case study would you use for flooding in an LEDC?
Pakistan, July 2010
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Give 2 causes of the 2010 Pakistani flood
Usually heavy monsoon. 69,000km^2 affected because river burst its banks
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What river burst its banks in Pakistan in 2010?
The river Indus
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Give 2 effects of the 2010 Pakistan flood
1600 people killed. 20 million affected with 700,000 homes flooded. 1000 bridges washed away = lack of accessibility for aid. Cost of repair: $4 billion
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Give 2 ways river flooding can be managed using hard engineering
Dams/reservoirs. River straightening. River deepening/building levées
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Give 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage of using dams/reservoirs
A - Water can be stored until needed. D - Very expensive and sediment is trapped
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Give 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage of using river straightening
A - Water moves from the area more quickly. D - Increases flood risk further downstream
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Give 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage of river deepening
A - Relatively cheap and levées can be made with the dug up sediment. D - Dredging must be done often
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Give 2 ways river flooding can be managed using soft engineering strategies
Do nothing, preparation, flood warnings, floodplain zoning
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Give 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage of using flood warnings
A - Gives people time to prepare. D - Doesn't prevent actual flooding
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Give 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage of using preparation
A - Reduces impact of flooding. D - Doesn't always work and expensive renovations to houses sometimes needed.
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Give 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage of using the do nothing approach
A - Saves money. D - Unpopular among locals, they want protection
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Give 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage of using floodplain zoning
A - Buildings on higher land so not going to be damaged. D - Restricts growth of towns
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What is an area in a water surplus?
An area with more water than it needs for its population
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What is an area in a water deficit?
An area with not enough water for its population
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Give an example of an area in a water surplus
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Give an example of an area in a water deficit
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How can water be transported around the UK?
Water stored in reservoirs can be transported around
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What kind of spider lives in cord grass and can easily be submerged?
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How long is the spit that Hurst Castle is on?
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Where is Old Harry?
Swanage Bay, Dorset
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Give a social impact of rising sea levels in The Maldives
People will be forced to leave their homes, entire communities could be homeless. Traditional way of life is lost
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Give an economic impact of sea level rise in The Maldives
Loss of tourism (which makes up 30% of the GDP) because the beaches will be ruined. Loss of fishing industry. Loss of jobs bc loss of tourism and fishing.
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Give a political impact of sea level rise in The Maldives
Policies have been made which allow people to move before it's too late.
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Give an environmental impact of sea level rise in The Maldives
Loss of beaches = loss of habitat. Coral reefs will be bleached so will die.
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What type of plate boundary caused the Indian Ocean tsunami?
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What 2 plates collided at a destructive boundary and caused the Indian Ocean tsunami?
Ino-Australian and Eurasion plate
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What is soil creep?
When there is a relatively shallow gradient and the soil moves so it forms something that looks like steps. This is a type of mass movement
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What are the 4 kinds of mass movement?
Soil creep, mudflow, landslip and rockfall
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Other cards in this set
What is fetch?
The stretch of ocean that the wind blows over to start and move the wave
Why do waves break when they reach the coast?
What is swash?
What is longshore drift?