Physical Geography-Formations

Formation of a Waterfall
-hard rock sits on soft rock and river runs over it-soft rock erodes quicker & it creates overhang of hard rock-overhang becomes unstable & falls into plungepool-waterfall retreats-keeps occuring until gorge formed
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Formation of Meander
-river flows round meander-fastest flow occurs on outside bend-more erosion here-water flows slower inside bend as it loses energy & deposits material-river cliff formed on outside of bend & slip off slope formed on inside bend
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Formation of Oxbow Lake
-feature of erosion & deposition-erosion attacks outside bend of meander until eventually cuts through another meander-river takes shortest/fastest route-depostion takes place on outside parts of channel-build up over time& cut off neck of og meander
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Formation of Floodplain
-occur in lower course of river near mouth-land is flat & dry & here the river begins to slow down-deposition occurs-during time of flood water in river will spill out onto the surrounding flat land-material in river deposited onto flat land-alluvium
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Long-Shore Drift
-process of transportation-material picked up from one end of beach &take it to other-swash pick up load&move up beach in prevailing wind-backwash take in straight back down-repeats-process continues until material deposited
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Formation of Bays and Headlands
-form when outcrops of harder, more resistant rock found in same area of softer, less resistant rock-softer rock erodes quicker thatn harder rock-hydraulic action & corrosion erode softer rock leaving outcrop of harder rock behind
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Formation of Wave-Cut Notch & Wave-Cut Platform
-wavecut notch occurs at bottom of cliff face when waves continue to erode it-notch continues to undercut cliff until it becomes unstable&collapses into sea-hydraulic action&corrosion continue to attack cliff-process repeats until wavecut platform oc
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Formation of Coastal Spilts
-form if constant supply of material being transported along coastline due to longshore drift-occur when coastline changes direction& where sea becomes shallow-material deposited in shallow sea which builds up over time to form spit
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Formation of Igneous Rock
-magma cools slowly underground, allows crystals to form-lava cools quickly above surface, forms few crystals
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Formation of Sedimentary Rock
-pieces of sediment carried downstream by river & settle on seabed in layers-overtime more layers added-pressure pushes out air & water turning it to rock
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Formation of Metamorphic Rock
-once igneous or sedimentary rocks that have been altered or changed due to extreme pressure and heat
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Formation of Lava Plateau-Antrim Plateau
-enormous fissures(cracks) open up across landscape-out pour huge flows of lava-lava cover valleys in layers & eventually fill valleys-lava flows lead to build up of huge flat topped mountain
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Formation of Basalt Columns-Giants Causeway
-lava filled hollow/dip in ground making deep pool-in hollow lava cooled slower than usual & shrank & contracted-creates cracks which become edges to basalt columns
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Formation of Volcanic Plug
-as volcano ceased errupting, neck/vent of volcano become blocked with thicker magma-magma cooled slower inside volcano allowing crystals to form-dolerite formed-harder than basalt&basalt erodes quicker than dolerite & dolerite left
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Why we get Low Pressure System
-air is rising-as it rises, it cools and condenses to form rain and clouds-windy because isobars are close together
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Why we get High Pressure System
-air is sinking-as it singks it warms, moisture evaporatesso few/no clouds form-dry conditions-calm because isobars are far apart
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What is Experienced at the Warm Front?
-cool polarr air meets warmer tropical air from the warm sector-warm tropical air forced to rise over cold polar air-as it rises it cools, condenses, forms clouds and brings rain
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Formation of Meander


-river flows round meander-fastest flow occurs on outside bend-more erosion here-water flows slower inside bend as it loses energy & deposits material-river cliff formed on outside of bend & slip off slope formed on inside bend

Card 3


Formation of Oxbow Lake


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Card 4


Formation of Floodplain


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Card 5


Long-Shore Drift


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