Physical Geography - A Level - Hazards

Natural Hazards
A naturally occurring event, that impacts human life, the built environment or the natural environment. These can occur in the lithosphere, hydrosphere or atmosphere. An example would be an earthquake.
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Fatalism
This is the view that a hazard will occur and cannot be stopped, resulting in a dismissive attitude, a fatalistic approach. An example is the people of Pompeii lived on the slopes of Mount Vesuvius for the fertile soils, however, risked their lives.
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Adaptation
This is when people have the ability to change their lifestyle and adapt in order to live in a hazardous area, an example of where this is large scale is in LA, the San Andreas Fault.
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Resilience
This is to do with how people become used to hazards and their impacts, after living in hazardous areas, an example is the Philippines, whereby people are so prone to potential hazards, they are increasingly becoming resilient to them.
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Fear
This is an emotion felt by people when they feel threatened by the potential of a natural hazard.
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Frequency
The rate per second or in a period of time, that a wave is produced. An example where this occurs is P, S and L waves are all measured during earthquakes.
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Magnitude
The size, scale or extent of the earthquake, measured on a seismograph.
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Palaeomagnetism
This is the study of the magnetic field in the Earth's rocks. This was introduced by Harry Hess in the 50s at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
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Volcano
This is a hill or mountain, with a crater and a vent, that lava can escape onto the Earth's surface. An example is Mount Pinatubo.
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Volcanic Bombs
A lump of lava blown out of a volcano during an eruption.
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Lava
This is hot, molten rock, typically liquid or semi-liquid, erupting from a volcano or fissure, and forming solid rock once cooled. Typically categorised into three types: basaltic, andesitic and rhyolitic.
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Tephra
This is the rock fragments out particles thrown out of a volcano during an eruption.
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Pyroclastic Flows
This is typically the cause of deaths during explosions, as they travel at a high speed. A dense combination of hot ash, lava and gases, which explosively are ejected from the volcano.
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Lahars
This is a destructive mudflow, which occurs on the sides of a volcano.
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Earthquake
This is a violent shaking of the ground, due to movement in the Earth's crust and tectonics. These typically cause mass destruction, an example being Haiti.
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Soil Liquéfaction
This occurs during an earthquake, the ground shakes so much that is causes the soil to lose it's natural structure and as a result begins to move closely in the state of liquid.
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Tropical Revolving Storms
This is a hurricane or cyclone, which has intense low-pressure, and is formed over hot oceans, intense winds causing a circular motion, also referred to as the Coriolis Effect. An example being Katrina.
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Wildfires
This is a large scale fire, caused either by human impacts or natural impacts, that can be extremely destructive spreading over a woodland or brush. An example is Victoria.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

This is the view that a hazard will occur and cannot be stopped, resulting in a dismissive attitude, a fatalistic approach. An example is the people of Pompeii lived on the slopes of Mount Vesuvius for the fertile soils, however, risked their lives.

Back

Fatalism

Card 3

Front

This is when people have the ability to change their lifestyle and adapt in order to live in a hazardous area, an example of where this is large scale is in LA, the San Andreas Fault.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

This is to do with how people become used to hazards and their impacts, after living in hazardous areas, an example is the Philippines, whereby people are so prone to potential hazards, they are increasingly becoming resilient to them.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

This is an emotion felt by people when they feel threatened by the potential of a natural hazard.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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