Anatomy and Physiology

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  • Created by: Becky1102
  • Created on: 22-03-16 19:15
Tendon
A round cord or band of connective tissue joining muscle to bone.
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Growth Plate
A plate of cartilage between the diaphysis and epiphysis that allows the bone to grow in length.
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Collagen
A rope-like protein that forms a structural framework in many parts of the body e.g. bone and skin.
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Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterised by compromised bone strength predisposing a person to an increased risk of fracture.
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Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis is a type of arthritis that is caused by the breakdown and eventual loss of the cartilage of one or more joints. Cartilage is a protein substance that serves as a 'cushion' between the bones of joints.
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Flexion
Decreasing the angle of a joint.
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Extension
Increasing the angle of a joint.
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Abduction
Movement away from the mid-line of the body.
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Adduction
Movement towards the mid-line of the body.
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Rotation
Movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis.
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Circumduction
The lower (distal) end of the bone moves in a circle; it is a combination of flexion, abduction and adduction.
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Lateral Flexion
Bending the head or trunk sideways.
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Plantar Flexion
Moving the foot downwards, away from the tibia.
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Dorsiflexion
Moving the foot upwards towards the tibia.
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Supination
Facing the palm of the hand forwards (while in the anatomical position).
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Pronation
Facing the palm of the hand backwards (while in the anatomical position).
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Origin
The point of attachment of a muscle to bone, where the bone is stationary during muscular contraction.
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Insertion
The point of attachment of a muscle to bone, where the bone moves during muscular contraction.
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Agonist Muscle (Prime Mover)
The muscle that is directly responsible for the movement at a given joint.
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Antagonist Muscle
A muscle that works in conjunction with an agonist. As the agonist contracts the antagonist lengthens and returns to its original length.
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Muscle Fibre
Muscle Fibres are muscle cells. Each fibre is a single cylindrical cell containing several nuclei.
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Slow Twitch Muscle Fibre
These fibres contract more slowly and do not produce as much force as fast twitch fibres. They are more suited to aerobic work as they contain more mitochondria and myoglobin.
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Fast Twitch Muscle Fibre
These fibres contract quicker and with more force than the slow slow twitch fibres. They are more suited to anaerobic work and therefore have a low resistance to fatigue. There are two types of fast twitch fibres (type 2a and type 2b).
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Aerobic Exercise
Where aerobic respiration provides the majority if the energy needed for the activity. A good supply of oxygen is needed and exercise is sub-maximal.
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Anaerobic Exercise
Where anaerobic respiration provides the majority of the energy needed for the activity. Exercise intensity is maximal and the duration of the activity is short.
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Inertia
The resistance a body has to a change in its state of motion.
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Force
Is often described as pushes or pulls on a body.
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Mass
The quantity of matter that a body contains. The weight of an object is proportional to its mass.
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Centre of Mass
The point where the mass of an object is concentrated. It is the object's point of balance.
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Eccentric Force
Applying a force tat doesn't pass through the centre of mass will produce angular motion.
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Momentum
The product of the mass times the velocity of an object.
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Acceleration
The rate of change in velocity.
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Velocity
The rate of change of displacement over a unit of time.
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Aerobic
A process taking place in the presence of oxygen.
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Anaerobic
A process taking place in the absence of oxygen.
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Pulmonary
Linked to the lungs.
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Oxygen Debt
Additional oxygen consumption during recovery, above that is usually required at rest.
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Sub-maximal
Refers to exercise performed at an intensity below an athlete' s maximal aerobic capacity, or VO2 - hence it represents aerobic work.
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Receptors
Sensory receptors that detect changes in the body's status e.g, chemoreceptors.
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Sensory Nerves
Transmit information detected by receptors towards the central nervous system.
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Medulla Oblongata
Part of the brain responsible for regulating respiration, heart rate and bloody vessels.
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Autonomic Nervous System
Controls the body's involuntary internal functions.
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Motor Nerves
Nerves from the central nervous system passing instructions to body parts.
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Pulmonary Circulation
Deoxygenated bloody from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs and oxygenated bloody back to the left atrium.
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Systemic Circulation
Oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to the body tissues and deoxygenated blood back to the right atrium.
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Enzyme
Protein that acts as a catalyst for bodily reactions.
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Blood Viscosity
Resistance to blood flow (fluid friction).
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OBLA (Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation)
Point at which lactate accumulation exceeds lactate removal, eventually leading to muscle fatigue.
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Myoglobin
Red pigment in muscles that stores and transports oxygen to mitochondria within muscles.
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Diaphysis
The shaft of a long bone.
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Epiphysis
The end portion of a long bone that flares out.
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Bone Marrow
A connective tissue found in the spaces inside bone that is the site of blood cell production and fat storage.
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Anterior
Towards the front of the body.
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Posterior
Towards the back of the body.
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Superior
Towards the head or the upper part of the body.
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Inferior
Towards the feet or the lower part of the body.
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Medial
Towards the middle of the body.
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Later
Towards the outside of the body
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Anatomical Position
An upright standing position with head, shoulders, chest, palms of hands, hips, knees and toes facing forwards.
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Fixator Muscle
Stabilises the origin of the agonist muscle.
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Linear Motion
When a body moves in a straight or curved line, with al its parts moving the same distance, in the same direction and at the same speed.
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Angular Motion
When a body or part of a body moves in a circle or part of a circle about an axis of rotation.
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Stability
Relates to how difficult it is to disturb a body from a balanced position.
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Line of Gravity
A line extending from the centre of mass vertically down to the ground.
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Direct Force
A force whose line of application passes through the centre of mass of a body causing the resulting motion to be linear.
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Deoxygenated
Blood depleted of oxygen.
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Oxygenated
Blood saturated with oxygen.
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Cardiac Cycle
Events of one heart beat.
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Bradycardia
A resting heart rate below 60bpm.
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Hypertrophy
Increase in size of heart muscle wall.
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Stroke Volume
The volume of blood ejected from heart ventricles every beat.
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Venous Return
Blood returning to the heart through the right atrium.
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Ventricular Contractility
Capacity of heart ventricles to contract.
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Motor Nerves
Nerves which stimulate muscle tissue causing motor movement.
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Starling's Law
Stroke volume is dependant upon venous return. An increase in venous return will cause an increase in stroke volume and cardiac output.
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Smooth Muslce
Involuntary muscle found in blood vessel walls.
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Vasodilate
Widening of arterial blood vessels.
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Vasoconstrict
Narrowing of arterial blood vessels.
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Venodialate
Widening of venous blood vessels.
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Venoconstrict
Narrowing of venous blood vessels.
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Ergogenic
Anything that improves performance.
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VO2 Max
Maximal oxygen consumption.
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Lactate Threshold
Start of anaerobic work.
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Heart Rate
The number of times the heart beats per minute.
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Cardiac Output (Q)
The volume of blood ejected by heart ventricles in one minute.
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End Diastolic Volume (EDV)
The volume of blood left in the ventricles at the end of the filling stage.
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End Systolic Volume (ESV)
The volume of blood left in the ventricles at the end of contraction.
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Blood Pressure
The pressure exerted by the blood against the arterial blood vessel wall.
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Total Lung Capacity
The most air you can inspire into your lungs.
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Pulmonary Ventilation
The process of air moving into and out of the lungs.
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External Respiration
Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and blood.
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Internal Respiration
Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and muscle tissue.
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Tidal Volume
The volume of air inspired or expired per breath.
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Frequency
The number of breaths taken in one minute.
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Minute Ventilation
The volume of air inspired or expired in one minute.
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Inspiratory Reverse Volume
Additional air that can be forcibly inhaled.
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Expiratory Reverse Volume
Additional air that can be forcible exhaled.
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Vital Capacity
Maximum amount of air a person can expel from the lungs after maximum inhalation.
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Residual Volume
Lung Volume representing the amount of air left in the lungs after a forced exhalation.
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Respiratory Control Centre (RCC)
Controls neural responses to changes in the respiratory system.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A plate of cartilage between the diaphysis and epiphysis that allows the bone to grow in length.

Back

Growth Plate

Card 3

Front

A rope-like protein that forms a structural framework in many parts of the body e.g. bone and skin.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterised by compromised bone strength predisposing a person to an increased risk of fracture.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Osteoarthritis is a type of arthritis that is caused by the breakdown and eventual loss of the cartilage of one or more joints. Cartilage is a protein substance that serves as a 'cushion' between the bones of joints.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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