Physical chemistry

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  • Created by: Kat098
  • Created on: 05-04-18 11:45
Enthalpy
the thermal energy that is stored in a chemical system
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Conservation of energy
energy cannot be created or destroyed, only moved from one place to another
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Exothermic reaction
Heat lost from reaction into surroundings. Negative enthaply
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Endothermic reaction
Heat gain from surroundings. Postitive enthalpy
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Enthalpy change
the energy change associated with a given reaction (kJmol^-1)
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Activation energy
minimum energy required to start a reaction by breaking bonds in a reaction
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Enthalpy change of formation
the energy change that takes place when one mole of a coompund is formed from its constitueent elements in their standard state under standard conditions
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Enthalpy change of combustion
Energy change that takes place when 1 mole of a substance is completely combusted
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Enthalpy change of neutralisation
energy change associated with the formation of one mole of water from a neutraliation reaction
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Calorimetry
the quantitative study of energy change in a chemical reaction (q=mcT). q is heat exchanged with surroundings in J
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Average bond enthalpy
mean energy needed for one mole of a given type of gaseous bonds to undergo homolytic fission
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Hess' law
the enthalpy change in a chemical reaction is independent of the route it takes
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Rate of reaction
the change in concentration of a reactsny or a product at a given time (moldm^-3s^-1)
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Catalyst
a substance that increases the rate of a reaction without being used up during the process
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Homogenous catalyst
A catalyst in the same phase as the reactant
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Heterogeneous catalyst
catalyst in a different phase from the reactants
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Biological catalysts
Catalysts found in nature, enzymes
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The Boltzmann Distribution
the distribution of energies of molecules at a particular temperature
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Reversible reaction
a reaction can take place in forward or reverse direction
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Dynamic equilibrium
A closed systems the rate of forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction and all chemicals have their concentrations maintained
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Le Chatelier's Principle
When system in equilibrium is subjected to change, the position of equilibrium will shift to minimise the change
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Eqilibrium constant, Kc
Kc gives a measure of where the equilibrium lays, giving a ratio between products and reactants (products conc./ reactants conc.)
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Fermentation
Metabolic process in which an organism converts a carbohydrate into an alcohol or an acid
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

energy cannot be created or destroyed, only moved from one place to another

Back

Conservation of energy

Card 3

Front

Heat lost from reaction into surroundings. Negative enthaply

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Heat gain from surroundings. Postitive enthalpy

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

the energy change associated with a given reaction (kJmol^-1)

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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