Physical Chemistry

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  • Created by: fjhcab
  • Created on: 20-03-16 21:41
Standard enthalpy change of neutralisation
Enthalpy change when an acids and an alkali react, under standard conditions to form 1 mole of water
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Standard enthalpy change of combustion
Enthalpy change when 1 mole of substance is completely burned in oxygen, under standard conditions. Reactants - Products
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Standard enthalpy change of reaction
Enthalpy change when the reaction occurs in molar quantities shown in the chemical equation, under standard conditions
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Standard enthalpy change of formation
Enthalpy change when 1 mole of a compound is formed from its elements in their standard states, under standard conditions. Products-Reactants
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Le Chatelier's Principle
If there's a change in concentration, pressure or temperature the equilibrium will move to counteract the change
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Temperature (LCP)
If temperature is increase equilibrium will shift to the endothermic direction. If temperature is decreased equilibrium will shift in the exothermic direction
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Concentration (LCP)
If concentration of reactants increase equilibrium will shift to the right to make more products. If concentration of products increases equilibrium will shift to the left to make more reactants
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Pressure (LCP)
If pressure increases equilibrium will shift to the side with fewer gas molecule. If decreased the equilibrium will shift the idea with more gas molecules
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Dynamic Equilibrium
If position of equilibrium moves to the right more products. If position of equilibrium moves to the left more reactants
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Increasing Pressure Speeds up Reactions
At higher pressures particles will be closer together increasing the chance of successful collisions
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Increasing Concentration Speeds up Reactions
Particles closer together so will collide more frequently
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Increasing Temperature Speeds up Reactions
Particles have more kinetic energy so will move faster colliding more
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Catalysts Can Speed Up Reactions
Lower activation energy. If activation energy is lower more particles will have enough energy to react
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Endothermic
Takes in heat delta H is POSITIVE. Bond Breaking
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Exothermic
Gives out heat delta H is NEGATIVE. Bond Making
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Rate of Reaction
Amount of reactant used or product formed / Time
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Catalyst
Provide an alternative reaction pathway with a lower activation energy. Chemically unchanged at the end of the reaction
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Heterogeneous
Catalyst is in a different phase from the reactant. Increases the surface area of the catalyst increase the amount that can react, increasing the rate of reaction
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Homogeneous
Catalysts are in the same phase as the reactants. Forms an intermediate species when the reactants combine with the catalyst. which reacts to form the products and reform the catalyst
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Standard enthalpy change of combustion

Back

Enthalpy change when 1 mole of substance is completely burned in oxygen, under standard conditions. Reactants - Products

Card 3

Front

Standard enthalpy change of reaction

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Standard enthalpy change of formation

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Le Chatelier's Principle

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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