Photosynthesis

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  • Created by: syaqub18
  • Created on: 17-04-15 16:54
What are photosynthetic pigments?
colored substances which absorb light energy for photosynthesis
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Example of a photosynthetic pigment
chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotene
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what is a coenzyme?
a molecule which aids the function of an enzyme
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where does photosynthesis take place?
chloroplast
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name the parts of a chloroplast
thlakoid, stroma, granum(thylakoid stack), lamella and starch grain
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what is a redox reaction?
when something is oxidised or reduced
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where do redox reactions occur?
in photosynthesis and respiration
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what is the light used for in the light dependent reaction?
making ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate (photophosphorylation), making reduced NADP from NADP, splitting water in to protons, electrons and oxygen (photolysis)
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what are the two ways photophosphorylation can occur?
Non-cyclic and cyclic
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What are the products of non-cyclic photophosphorylation?
Reduced NADP, ATP and oxygen
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where are the photosystems located?
in the thylakoid membrane
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what are the two photosystems?
PS2 AND PS1
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What are the wave lengths of PS2 and PS1?
P680 and P700
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what are photosystems linked with and what does this create?
electron carriers to form an electron transport chain
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what is the first stage of non-cyclic photophosphorylation?
light energy excites electrons in chlorophyll of PS2, they move to a higher energy level, high energy electrons move down the electron transport chain to PS1
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what is the second stage of non-cyclic photophosphorylation?
photolysis of water produces electrons, protons and oxygen, excited electrons from chlorophyll in PS2 which leave are replaced by electrons from the water
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what is the third stage of non-cyclic photophosphorylation?
electrons lose energy as they move down electron transport chain, energy from electrons used to transport protons in to thylakoid to cause proton gradient, protons move down gradient in to stroma via ATP synthase, energy from movement join ADP + Pi
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What is the fourth stage of non-cyclic photophosphorylation?
energy from excited electrons generates reduced NADP, light energy absorbed by PS1, excites electrons again, electron transferred to NADP along with proton from stroma
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what happens when something is oxidised?
lost electrons, may have lost hydrogen, may have gained oxygen
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what happens when something is reduced?
gains electrons, may have gained hydrogen, may have lost oxygen
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what happens when one molecule is oxidised?
the other is reduced
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What happens in cyclic photophosphorylation?
only uses PS1, electrons from chlorophyll molecule aren't passed to NADP but passed back to PS1 by electron carriers, produces small amount of ATP, no reduced NADP or oxygen produced
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where does the light dependent reaction take place?
thlakoid/thylakoid membrane
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where does the light independent reaction/calvin cycle take place?
stroma
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what is the first stage of light independent reaction/calvin cycle?
formation of glycerate 3-phosphate, CO2 enters leaf through stomata and diffuses into stroma, joins with RuBP (5 carbon compound) to produce unstable 6 carbon compound, which breaks to two 3 molecule compounds, Rubisco catalyses reaction
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what is the second stage of the light independent reaction/calvin cycle?
formation of triose phosphate, 3 carbon compound GP reduces to TP, ATP provides energy for this and H+ ions come from reduced NADP (both from light dependent), Reduced NADP recycled as NADP, TP is used to make many useful compounds
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what is the third stage of light independent reaction/calvin cycle?
regeneration of RuBP, 5 out of every 6 molecules of TP produced isn't used to make useful compounds but to regenerate RuBP, This uses the rest of the ATP from light dependent
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what can triose phosphate from the light independent reaction/calvin cycle make?
carbohydrates- hexose sugar made from two TP so larger ones can be made by joining these together such as cellulose Lipids- made from glycerol (made from TP) and fatty acids which are made from GP Proteins- some amino acids made from GP
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Example of a photosynthetic pigment

Back

chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotene

Card 3

Front

what is a coenzyme?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

where does photosynthesis take place?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

name the parts of a chloroplast

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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