Photosynthesis

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define autotroph
organisms that use light or chemical energy and inorganic molecules such as CO2 and H2O to synthesise complex organic molecules such as carbs, lipids and nucleic acids
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define heterotroph
organisms that ingest and digest complex organic molecules, releasing the chemical potential energy stored in them
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light energy
light energy is used during photosynthesis to produce complex organic molecules
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explain how respiration in plants and animals depends upon the products of photosynthesis
Photoautotrophs and heterotrophs can release the chemical potential energy in complex molecules which are made during photosynthesis, this is respiration. They use oxygen which first came into the atmosphere as a product of photosynthesis for aerobic
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How does the structure of chloroplasts enable them to carry out their functions (inner membrane)
Inner membrane – contains transport proteins which control the entry and exit of substances between the cytoplasm and stroma
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How does the structure of chloroplasts enable them to carry out their functions (grana)
provides a large surface area for the photosynthetic pigments, electron carries and ATP synthase which are involved in the light dependent reaction
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How does the structure of chloroplasts enable them to carry out their functions (Photosynthetic pigments )
arranged in photosystems to allow for maximum absorption of light energy
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How does the structure of chloroplasts enable them to carry out their functions (stroma)
contains enzymes needed to catalyse the reactions of the light dependent reaction. It also surrounds the grana so products of light independent stage can pass into stroma for the light independent reaction
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How does the structure of chloroplasts enable them to carry out their functions (chloroplast DNA)
Chloroplasts can make some of the proteins needed for photosynthesis using genetic instruction in chloroplast DNA and the chloroplast ribosomes
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Define the term photosynthetic pigment
Molecules that absorb light energy, each pigments absorbs a range of wavelengths in the visible region and has their own distinct peak of absorption, other wavelengths are reflected.
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what is the Importance of photosynthetic pigments
Photosynthetic pigments absorb certain wavelengths of light and reflect others they appear the colour of light wavelengths they are reflecting. They work together to capture as much light energy as possible. They are arranged in the photosystems whic
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what is Chlorophyll pigment a and what does it do
Consists of a long phytol hydrocarbon chain and a porphyrin groups with magnesium. Chlorophyll A comes in two forms P680 and P700 and appears yellow green, it absorbs red light and blue lights of wavelengths around 450nm and act as the primary pigmen
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what are the Accessory pigments and what do they do
Chlorophyll B – Absorbs light wavelengths of around 500nm and 640nm and appears blue green. Carotenoids – reflects yellow and orange light and absorb blue light, do not contain a porphyrin group, they absorb wavelengths that are not well absorb
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Explain non cyclic photophosphorylation
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Explain cyclic photophosphorylation
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outline how light energy is converted to chemical energy in the light dependent stage
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Explain the role of water in the light dependent stage
Water is a source of; hydrogen ions to be used in chemiosmosis to produce ATP / electrons to replace those lost by oxidised chlorophyll / the oxygen produced
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Outline how the products of the light dependent stage are used in the light independent stage to produce triose phosphate, ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase and glycerate 3 – phosphate
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Explain the role of carbon dioxide in the light independent stage
Carbon dioxide is the source of carbon and oxygen for the production of all large organic molecules. These molecules are used as structures or act as an energy store or a source.
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How are the products of the light independent stage used?
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Discuss light intensity as a limiting factor in photosynthesis
As light intensity increases it causes the stomata to open so that carbon dioxide can enter the leaves. Light is also trapped by chlorophyll where it excited electrons and splits water molecules to produce protons. These are used in photophosphorylat
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Discuss temperature as a limiting factor in photosynthesis
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Discuss carbon dioxide concentrations as a limiting factor in photosynthesis
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benefits of growing plants in greenhouses
it is easier to control water supply and other factors / controlled use of pesticides / gas heater supplies heat and CO2 / prevents damage to plant from wind
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Describe how to investigate the factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis by using a photosynthometer
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Describe how to investigate the factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis using leaf discs
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Describe the effect on the rate of ohosytheisis and on levels of GP, RuBP and TP when the light intensity changes (less light)
GP cannot be changed to TP causing the levels of TP to fall. GP will accumulate, less RUBP will be available to fixate CO2
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Describe the effect on the rate of ohosytheisis and on levels of GP, RuBP and TP when the light intensity changes (more light)
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Describe the effect on the rate of photosynthesis and on levels of GP, RuBP and TP when the concentration of carbon dioxide changes (more)
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Describe the effect on the rate of photosynthesis and on levels of GP, RuBP and TP when the concentration of carbon dioxide changes (less)
Effects the light independent stage; if it drops below 0.01% then RuBP will accumulate and the levels of GP and TP will fall
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Describe the effect on the rate of photosynthesis and on levels of GP, RuBP and TP when the temperature changes
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Card 2

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define heterotroph

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organisms that ingest and digest complex organic molecules, releasing the chemical potential energy stored in them

Card 3

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light energy

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Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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explain how respiration in plants and animals depends upon the products of photosynthesis

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Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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How does the structure of chloroplasts enable them to carry out their functions (inner membrane)

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