Phobias

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Definition of Phobia
when the aversion becomes excessive or unreasonable and when there is no other possible psychological cause or symptoms cant be accounted for by another disorder
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Specific Phobia
Intense irrational rears about a specific object or situation eg the dark
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Social Phobia
characterised by an excessive and persistent fear of particular social situations
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Agroaphobia
anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult
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Diagnosis (same for all 3 types)
1) marked and persistent fear that is excessive and unreasonable cued from the presence or anticipation 2) exposure to the the stimulus always results in immediate anxiety response 3)the fear is reconginsed to be irrational
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Diagnosis (same for all 3 types) ~ CONTINUED
4)phobic situations are avoided 5)avoidence or distress interfers significantly with a persons routine or functioning 6)in under 18's the duration must be longer than 6months 7) anxiety cannot be accounted for by any other mental disorder
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Issues of Classification and Diagnosis - Reliability
each time ICD is used it should produce the same outcome, even when used by different doctors, this is known as inter-rater reliability
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Issues of Classification and Diagnosis - Validity
classification catergories should put people with the same symptoms and they should all respond the same way to treatment most important type is predictive-someone with a phobia should react the same way as other people if not diagnosis is doubted
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Inter - rater reliability
when two or more indpendent assessors give the same score
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Inter-rater reliability Skyes
asked 3 clinicians to assess 54 patient interviews usig Structured Cinical Interviews. Found high agreement (72%) showing diagnosis of phobias is reliable
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Test-retest reliability
Whether test items are consistent
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Test-retest eliability Hiller
reported good diagnostic agreement in a test retest study usin Munich Diagnostic Checklist(questionnaires)
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Counter Argument for inter rater relaibility
Kendler - used face to ace and telephone interviews to assess individuals with pobias, over 1month intervals found 46% agreement due to exaggerating symptoms and subjective opininon
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Validity - Comorbidity
the extent that two or more conditions co-occur high levels have been found between different phobias suggesting the conditions are not seperate entties, so which do you treat first?
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Concurrent Validity
establishing the vaue of a new measure of phoic symptons by correlating it with an exisiting one
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Construct Validity
measures the extent that a test for phobic disorders really does measure a symptom of phobias
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Reliability AO2 Kobak
reliability may be improved by the use of computerised scales as there is less opportunity for the administrator to affect the responses that are given
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Validity - IDA Cultural Norms
cultural norms about normal functioning are likely to affect diagnosis TKS phobia of embarrasing others is only reconginsed in Japan
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Comorbidity AO2
Eysenck found up to 66% patients with ne anxiety disorder are also diagnosed with another
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Intense irrational rears about a specific object or situation eg the dark

Back

Specific Phobia

Card 3

Front

characterised by an excessive and persistent fear of particular social situations

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

1) marked and persistent fear that is excessive and unreasonable cued from the presence or anticipation 2) exposure to the the stimulus always results in immediate anxiety response 3)the fear is reconginsed to be irrational

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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