Philosophy Criticisms

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  • Created by: Sian
  • Created on: 07-03-13 11:07
David Hume
Recognising when a line of argument disobeys the rules of logic and instead of moving from one step to the next makes a great leap.
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David Hume
This is the same as saying that because all humans have a mother, the Earth has a mother.
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David Hume Example
The example of the Bus. (Any link made would be a link made by you in your own mind) Fallacy of affirmation
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David Hume
Hume maintains that the Cosmological argument begins with familiar concepts of the universe and concludes with not-so-familiar concepts beyond human experience.
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David Hume
For Hume, God’s existence cannot be proven analytically (by definition), since the definition of God’s nature is not knowable.
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David Hume
Hume concludes that it is not possible to prove the existence of a being who is unknowable and existentially different from all other beings.
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Immanuel Kant
In ‘Critique of Pure Reason, opposed the theory that a chain of cause-effect events can be set in motion from outside the realm of the physical universe.
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Immanuel Kant
The cause-effect relationship is observed within the confines of the Temporal world. therefore any talk of the causal cycle stretching beyond the empirical world is non-sensical.
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Bertrand Russell
Russell however refused to accept the notion of a necessary being as one that cannot be thought of not existing, and concluded that the regress of causal events could not be held responsible for the existence of everything in the universe:
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Cosmological Argument (Motion 1)
Evident to our senses in motion—the movement from actuality to potentiality. Things are acted on. (Again, note that the argument proceeds from empirical evidence; hence it is an à posteriori or an inductive argument.)
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Cosmological Argument (Motion 2)
Whatever is moved is moved by something else. Potentiality is only moved by actuality. (An actual oak tree is what produces the potentitality of an acorn.)
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Cosmological Argument (Necessity 1)
Unless there is a First Mover, there can be no motions. To take away the actual is to take away the potential. (Hence, which came first for Aristotle, the chicken or the egg?)
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Cosmological Argument (Necessity 2)
(Aquinas is not rejecting an indefinite or an infinite series as such, the idea is that a lower element depends on a higher element as in a hierarchy, not a temporal series.)
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Cosmological Argument (Necessity 3)
Thus, a First Mover exists.
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Cosmological Argument (Necessity 4)
Since objects in the universe come into being and pass away, it is possible for those objects to exist or for those objects not to exist at any given time.
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Cosmological Argument (Necessity 5)
Since objects are countable, the objects in the universe are finite in number.
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Cosmological Argument (Necessity 6)
If, for all existent objects, they do not exist at some time, then, given infinite time, there would be nothing in existence. (Nothing can come from nothing—there is no creation ex nihilo) for individual existent objects.
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Cosmological Argument (Necessity 7)
But, in fact, many objects exist in the universe.
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Cosmological Argument (Necessity 8)
Therefore, a Necessary Being (i.e., a Being of which it is impossible that it should not exist) exists.
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Cosmological Argument (Necessity 9)
Although the Argument from Necessity is empirical, the concepts of necessary and contingent are logical. The crucial question is in Hume's words, whether matters of fact are being confused with relations of ideas in the argument.
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Cosmological Argument (Efficiency)
There is an efficient cause for everything; nothing can be the efficient cause of itself.
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Cosmological Argument (Efficiency)
It is not possible to regress to infinity in efficient causes.
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Cosmological Argument (Efficiency)
To take away the cause is to take away the effect.
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Cosmological Argument (Efficiency)
If there be no first cause then there will be no others
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Cosmological Argument (Efficiency)
Therefore, a First Cause exists (and this is God).
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Card 2

Front

This is the same as saying that because all humans have a mother, the Earth has a mother.

Back

David Hume

Card 3

Front

The example of the Bus. (Any link made would be a link made by you in your own mind) Fallacy of affirmation

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Hume maintains that the Cosmological argument begins with familiar concepts of the universe and concludes with not-so-familiar concepts beyond human experience.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

For Hume, God’s existence cannot be proven analytically (by definition), since the definition of God’s nature is not knowable.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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